Avicenna Journal of Neuro Psych Physiology Avicenna Journal of Neuro Psych Physiology Avicenna J Neuro Psych Physio http://www.avicennajnpp.com 2383-2436 2383-2444 10.5812/ajnpp. en jalali 2017 6 25 gregorian 2017 6 25 1 1
en 10.17795/ajnpp-21456 Avicenna Journal of Neuropsychophysiology Avicenna Journal of Neuropsychophysiology editorial editorial Journal; Neuropsychophysiology; Hamadan Journal; Neuropsychophysiology; Hamadan http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=21456 Ali Ghaleiha Ali Ghaleiha Department of Clinical Psychiatry and Behavioral Disorders, Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Clinical Psychiatry and Behavioral Disorders, Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-8118271066 Department of Clinical Psychiatry and Behavioral Disorders, Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Clinical Psychiatry and Behavioral Disorders, Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-8118271066
en 10.17795/ajnpp-18090 The Process of Substance Abuse Onset in Women: A Cross-Sectional Study in Hamadan, Western Iran The Process of Substance Abuse Onset in Women: A Cross-Sectional Study in Hamadan, Western Iran research-article research-article Results

The most common drug used by 48 women (81.35%) was th eopium, followed by crack(8.47%), heroin (1.69%), methadone (1.69%)and cannabis (1.69%). Mean age of the first time experience of cigarette smoking was 17.11 ± 9.22 years. Also, the mean age of the first time drug substance use was 27.62 ± 10.46 years and the mean duration of drug use was 5.2 ± 12.0 years. Among studied women, 74.57% used drugs on a regular basis. General Health Questionnaire results indicated that 74.6% of the studied women had suboptimal general health. Twenty six women (44.6%) were referred to a psychologist or psychiatrist. The main reason for referring to a psychologist or psychiatrist was addiction withdrawal in 19.35%, depression and anxiety in 5.06%, and familial problems in 12.9% and headache in 9.68%. Among the examined individuals, 50.8% had once decided to quit, 23.7% for two times, 11.9% for three times, 8.5% for four times and 1.7% for sixteen times.

Background

Drug addiction is a drastic problem in women’s life which is growing rapidly and has attracted a lot of attention in Iran’s academic community who investigate addiction. Process of addiction in women highly differs with men; moreover, individual, familial and social consequences of addiction for women are much more intense than that of the men.

Conclusions

Significant differences are expected regarding the various patterns of onset, continuation and cession of drug abuse between the women and men. There are also different incentives for participation of women in the treatment processes which is dependent on the country's social and cultural features.

Objectives

This study aimed at achieve a holistic view on the onset of drug addiction and factors related to the continuation of drug abuse in female drug addicts in Hamadan province, Iran.

Patients and Methods

Fifty nine addicted women who were admitted to the only rehabilitation and treatment center for addicted women in Hamadan and volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional survey were chosen. Following clinical interviewing and completing the health questionnaire, they were asked to fill up a standard questionnaire to obtain demographic information including complete and comprehensive questions about sociodemographic and familial states which were effective in onset, continuation and cession of drug abuse.

Results

The most common drug used by 48 women (81.35%) was th eopium, followed by crack(8.47%), heroin (1.69%), methadone (1.69%)and cannabis (1.69%). Mean age of the first time experience of cigarette smoking was 17.11 ± 9.22 years. Also, the mean age of the first time drug substance use was 27.62 ± 10.46 years and the mean duration of drug use was 5.2 ± 12.0 years. Among studied women, 74.57% used drugs on a regular basis. General Health Questionnaire results indicated that 74.6% of the studied women had suboptimal general health. Twenty six women (44.6%) were referred to a psychologist or psychiatrist. The main reason for referring to a psychologist or psychiatrist was addiction withdrawal in 19.35%, depression and anxiety in 5.06%, and familial problems in 12.9% and headache in 9.68%. Among the examined individuals, 50.8% had once decided to quit, 23.7% for two times, 11.9% for three times, 8.5% for four times and 1.7% for sixteen times.

Background

Drug addiction is a drastic problem in women’s life which is growing rapidly and has attracted a lot of attention in Iran’s academic community who investigate addiction. Process of addiction in women highly differs with men; moreover, individual, familial and social consequences of addiction for women are much more intense than that of the men.

Conclusions

Significant differences are expected regarding the various patterns of onset, continuation and cession of drug abuse between the women and men. There are also different incentives for participation of women in the treatment processes which is dependent on the country's social and cultural features.

Objectives

This study aimed at achieve a holistic view on the onset of drug addiction and factors related to the continuation of drug abuse in female drug addicts in Hamadan province, Iran.

Patients and Methods

Fifty nine addicted women who were admitted to the only rehabilitation and treatment center for addicted women in Hamadan and volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional survey were chosen. Following clinical interviewing and completing the health questionnaire, they were asked to fill up a standard questionnaire to obtain demographic information including complete and comprehensive questions about sociodemographic and familial states which were effective in onset, continuation and cession of drug abuse.

Opioid-Related Disorders;Substance Abuse Treatment Centers;Women;Hamadan Opioid-Related Disorders;Substance Abuse Treatment Centers;Women;Hamadan http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=18090 Mohammad Ahmadpanah Mohammad Ahmadpanah Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Ali Ghaleiha Ali Ghaleiha Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Leila Jahangard Leila Jahangard Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Saeed Mosavi Saeed Mosavi Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Mohammad Haghighi Mohammad Haghighi Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran, Tel: +98-9133112905, Fax: + 98-8138271066 Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran, Tel: +98-9133112905, Fax: + 98-8138271066
en 10.17795/ajnpp-18664 Effect of Amyloid β- Peptide on Passive Avoidance Learning in Rats: A Behavioral Study Effect of Amyloid β- Peptide on Passive Avoidance Learning in Rats: A Behavioral Study research-article research-article Conclusions

These data suggest that single bilateral microinjection of Aβ (25-35) could impair memory and can be used as an AD model in Wistar rats.

Results

The results showed that Aβ (25-35) significantly impaired both step-through latency and time in dark compartment in the passive avoidance task.

Background

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia that leads to neurotoxicity. Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD.

Objective

Given the contradictory results of Aβ (25-35) on the memory, in the present study we have examined the effect of Aβ - induced memory impairment.

Materials and Methods

Wistar male rats received an intrahippocampal (IHP) injection of Aβ (25-35).The learning function in the rats was examined by the passive avoidance task.

Conclusions

These data suggest that single bilateral microinjection of Aβ (25-35) could impair memory and can be used as an AD model in Wistar rats.

Results

The results showed that Aβ (25-35) significantly impaired both step-through latency and time in dark compartment in the passive avoidance task.

Background

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia that leads to neurotoxicity. Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD.

Objective

Given the contradictory results of Aβ (25-35) on the memory, in the present study we have examined the effect of Aβ - induced memory impairment.

Materials and Methods

Wistar male rats received an intrahippocampal (IHP) injection of Aβ (25-35).The learning function in the rats was examined by the passive avoidance task.

Alzheimer's disease; Amyloid β-peptide; Learning; Rats Alzheimer's disease; Amyloid β-peptide; Learning; Rats http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=18664 Ali Nikkhah Ali Nikkhah Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Fatemeh Ghahremanitamadon Fatemeh Ghahremanitamadon Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Somayeh Zargooshnia Somayeh Zargooshnia Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Siamak Shahidi Siamak Shahidi Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Sara Soleimani Asl Sara Soleimani Asl Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Anatomy, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran, Tel/Fax: +98-8118380208 Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Anatomy, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran, Tel/Fax: +98-8118380208
en 10.17795/ajnpp-18671 Differential Effects of Sildenafil (Viagra) on Processing Steps of Spatial Learning and Memory in Rat Differential Effects of Sildenafil (Viagra) on Processing Steps of Spatial Learning and Memory in Rat research-article research-article Background

Sildenafil (Viagra) has been introduced to treat erectile dysfunction by acting as phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor and hence accumulation of guanosine cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). On the other hands, the nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway has crucial role in synaptic plasticity processes like long-term potentiation (LTP) in the central nervous system considered as a model of learning and memory.

Objectives

The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of sildenafil on different stages of spatial learning and memory of rat using radial maze.

Materials and Methods

The effects of pre-training, pre-retrieval oral administration or post-training i.p. injection of sildenafil (10 mg/kg) in radial maze task were investigated.

Results

Pre-training and post-training administration of sildenafil impaired radial maze task. Pre-retrieval injection of sildenafil decreased reference memory and working memory errors. Therefore, sildenafil impaired acquisition and consolidation of spatial learning and memory but improved retrieval of spatial memory in radial maze.

Conclusions

Sildenafil has differential effects on the spatial learning and memory processing. It seems this result is due to accumulation of cGMP in the neural structures related to learning and memory processing. As different neural structures are involved in different learning and memory tasks, these results might be due to the different actions of cGMP in different structures of brain.

Background

Sildenafil (Viagra) has been introduced to treat erectile dysfunction by acting as phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor and hence accumulation of guanosine cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). On the other hands, the nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway has crucial role in synaptic plasticity processes like long-term potentiation (LTP) in the central nervous system considered as a model of learning and memory.

Objectives

The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of sildenafil on different stages of spatial learning and memory of rat using radial maze.

Materials and Methods

The effects of pre-training, pre-retrieval oral administration or post-training i.p. injection of sildenafil (10 mg/kg) in radial maze task were investigated.

Results

Pre-training and post-training administration of sildenafil impaired radial maze task. Pre-retrieval injection of sildenafil decreased reference memory and working memory errors. Therefore, sildenafil impaired acquisition and consolidation of spatial learning and memory but improved retrieval of spatial memory in radial maze.

Conclusions

Sildenafil has differential effects on the spatial learning and memory processing. It seems this result is due to accumulation of cGMP in the neural structures related to learning and memory processing. As different neural structures are involved in different learning and memory tasks, these results might be due to the different actions of cGMP in different structures of brain.

Sildenafil;Spatial Learning and Memory;Rat Sildenafil;Spatial Learning and Memory;Rat http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=18671 Siamak Shahidi Siamak Shahidi Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran, Tel: +98-8138380462, Fax: +98-8138380208 Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran, Tel: +98-8138380462, Fax: +98-8138380208 Mahdi Arjipour Mahdi Arjipour Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Alireza Komaki Alireza Komaki Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Minoo Mahmoodi Minoo Mahmoodi Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan Branch, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan Branch, Hamadan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/ajnpp-18695 Anxiolytic Effects of Acute Injection of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Lettuce in the Elevated Plus-Maze Task in Rats Anxiolytic Effects of Acute Injection of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Lettuce in the Elevated Plus-Maze Task in Rats research-article research-article Background

Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components. There is some evidence in traditional medicine for the effectiveness of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in the treatment of anxiety in humans.

Objectives

The present study investigated the effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of lettuce on rat behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the results compared with the effects of diazepam.

Materials and Methods

Adult male Wistar rats weighing 200 – 240 g were used in the present study. Seven different groups of rats received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of lettuce extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg), diazepam (0.3, 0.6, or 1.2 mg/kg), or vehicle (control group), 30 minutes before entering the EPM test. The total distance covered by the animals, the percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM, the time spent in the open arms, and the number of entries into the closed arms were recorded for a 5 minutes duration.

Results

An IP injection of both diazepam and lettuce extract before an EPM trial significantly increased the percentage of open arm entries and the time spent in the open arms. Diazepam decreased the total distance covered by the animals and the number of closed arm entries, whereas lettuce extract had no effect on these parameters. Locomotor activity was not significantly changed by the lettuce extract.

Conclusions

Acute administration of lettuce extract has an anxiolytic profile in rats similar to that of anxiolytic diazepam at low dose. Future investigations are essential for better understanding of the anxiolytic properties and neurobiological mechanisms of lettuce extract.

Background

Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components. There is some evidence in traditional medicine for the effectiveness of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in the treatment of anxiety in humans.

Objectives

The present study investigated the effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of lettuce on rat behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the results compared with the effects of diazepam.

Materials and Methods

Adult male Wistar rats weighing 200 – 240 g were used in the present study. Seven different groups of rats received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of lettuce extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg), diazepam (0.3, 0.6, or 1.2 mg/kg), or vehicle (control group), 30 minutes before entering the EPM test. The total distance covered by the animals, the percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM, the time spent in the open arms, and the number of entries into the closed arms were recorded for a 5 minutes duration.

Results

An IP injection of both diazepam and lettuce extract before an EPM trial significantly increased the percentage of open arm entries and the time spent in the open arms. Diazepam decreased the total distance covered by the animals and the number of closed arm entries, whereas lettuce extract had no effect on these parameters. Locomotor activity was not significantly changed by the lettuce extract.

Conclusions

Acute administration of lettuce extract has an anxiolytic profile in rats similar to that of anxiolytic diazepam at low dose. Future investigations are essential for better understanding of the anxiolytic properties and neurobiological mechanisms of lettuce extract.

Anxiety; Lettuce (Lactuca sativa); Anti Anxiety, Agents; Diazepam; Rat Anxiety; Lettuce (Lactuca sativa); Anti Anxiety, Agents; Diazepam; Rat http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=18695 Alireza Komaki Alireza Komaki Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8118380267, Fax: +98-8118380131 Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8118380267, Fax: +98-8118380131 Zarife Khaledi Nasab Zarife Khaledi Nasab Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Siamak Shahidi Siamak Shahidi Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Abdolrahman Sarihi Abdolrahman Sarihi Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Iraj Salehi Iraj Salehi Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Ahvan Ghaderi Ahvan Ghaderi Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/ajnpp-20314 Prevalence and Factors Associated With Tramadol Abuse Among College Students in West of Iran: an Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior Prevalence and Factors Associated With Tramadol Abuse Among College Students in West of Iran: an Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior research-article research-article Background

Tramadol is an opioid analgesic indicated for the treatment of moderate and severe pains. In the case of long administration, tramadol has a potential to cause dependency, tolerance and drug abuse.

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with tramadol abuse among college students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework.

Patients and Methods

This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 400 college students of Hamadan universities recruited with a stratified sampling method. The data-gathering tool was a questionnaire based on the TPB constructs. Data was analyzed by logistic regression and bivariate correlations using SPSS-19 software.

Results

The subjects reported 50%, 35% and 77% of maximum receivable scores of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavior control, respectively. In total, 12.5% of participants indicated drug abuse in the past. Subjective norms and perceived behavioral control were better predictors for tramadol abuse.

Conclusions

Results demonstrated the unique importance of subjective norms and perceived behavioral control when examining substance abuse among college students.

Background

Tramadol is an opioid analgesic indicated for the treatment of moderate and severe pains. In the case of long administration, tramadol has a potential to cause dependency, tolerance and drug abuse.

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with tramadol abuse among college students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework.

Patients and Methods

This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 400 college students of Hamadan universities recruited with a stratified sampling method. The data-gathering tool was a questionnaire based on the TPB constructs. Data was analyzed by logistic regression and bivariate correlations using SPSS-19 software.

Results

The subjects reported 50%, 35% and 77% of maximum receivable scores of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavior control, respectively. In total, 12.5% of participants indicated drug abuse in the past. Subjective norms and perceived behavioral control were better predictors for tramadol abuse.

Conclusions

Results demonstrated the unique importance of subjective norms and perceived behavioral control when examining substance abuse among college students.

Cognition;Students, Substance-Related Disorders;Tramadol Cognition;Students, Substance-Related Disorders;Tramadol http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20314 Saeed Bashirian Saeed Bashirian Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Majid Barati Majid Barati Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9188157548, Fax: +98-8118380509 Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9188157548, Fax: +98-8118380509 Yadollah Fathi Yadollah Fathi Department of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/ajnpp-20156 Musical Hallucination in a Patient With Frontal Lobe Meningioma Musical Hallucination in a Patient With Frontal Lobe Meningioma case-report case-report Introduction

Many conditions can mimic psychiatric symptoms. Amongst them, intracranial mass and space occupying lesions have a significant importance. Aggression and hallucination are seen in association with a basal frontal lesion, and may mimic psychotic syndromes.

Case Presentation

A 37-year-old man with no previous mental illness presented with a month history of headache, blurred vision, diplopia, aggression, loss of interest, fatigue, insomnia, and depressed mood. He was suffering from daily auditory hallucination which described as musical hallucination lasting about an hour per day. The headache was tension-type which appeared swinging, two times per week lasting 30 minutes. After auditory hallucination, the patient disclosed nausea, vomiting, and transient loss of consciousness. He referred from a neurologist, because, conventional therapy for the patient had not response. There were no other neurological symptoms or deficits. The results of neurologic examination including evaluation of the cranial nerves as well as head and neck examination were normal; But, psychiatric symptoms developed. Therefore, he was admitted to the psychiatric ward. The patient was diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) with psychotic feature by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV criteria and received psychiatric treatment. He started on antipsychotic agent (olanzapine 5 mg tablet/bid), antidepressant (sertraline 50 mg tablet/qhs) and valproate sodium 200 mg tablet/bid for treatment of aggression and headaches. After five days of admission, primary symptoms of headache and auditory hallucination were better but diplopia and blurred vision were still present. Ophthalmology examination revealed. The pupils were round, isochoric, and normoreactive to light and accommodation, and there was no sign of a relative afferent pupillary defect. Ophthalmoscopy showed a papilledema in both eyes. In order to rule out the intracranial pressure and their causes, neuroimaging was requested. An emergent noncontrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) image of the head revealed a hyperdense mass in midfrontal convexity. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbits with and without intravenous gadolinium enhancement further delineated the CT findings and highlighted a large avidly enhancing midline mass within the frontal region measuring approximately 48×50×42 mm in axial dimension, consistent with a meningioma. The patient discharged from psychiatric ward with necessary advices and was admitted to the neurosurgery ward for further evaluation. A first psychosis episode is a clinical condition with principal indication for cerebral CT-scan.

Discussion

Meningioma is a common intracranial tumor with a variety of histomorphologic growth patterns, which are usually easily recognized. The three most common symptoms are headaches, mental status changes, and paresis. Aggression and hallucination are seen in association with a basal frontal lesion and may mimic psychotic syndromes like hypomania and schizophrenia. A first psychosis episode is a clinical condition with principal indication for cerebral CT-scan.

Introduction

Many conditions can mimic psychiatric symptoms. Amongst them, intracranial mass and space occupying lesions have a significant importance. Aggression and hallucination are seen in association with a basal frontal lesion, and may mimic psychotic syndromes.

Case Presentation

A 37-year-old man with no previous mental illness presented with a month history of headache, blurred vision, diplopia, aggression, loss of interest, fatigue, insomnia, and depressed mood. He was suffering from daily auditory hallucination which described as musical hallucination lasting about an hour per day. The headache was tension-type which appeared swinging, two times per week lasting 30 minutes. After auditory hallucination, the patient disclosed nausea, vomiting, and transient loss of consciousness. He referred from a neurologist, because, conventional therapy for the patient had not response. There were no other neurological symptoms or deficits. The results of neurologic examination including evaluation of the cranial nerves as well as head and neck examination were normal; But, psychiatric symptoms developed. Therefore, he was admitted to the psychiatric ward. The patient was diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) with psychotic feature by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV criteria and received psychiatric treatment. He started on antipsychotic agent (olanzapine 5 mg tablet/bid), antidepressant (sertraline 50 mg tablet/qhs) and valproate sodium 200 mg tablet/bid for treatment of aggression and headaches. After five days of admission, primary symptoms of headache and auditory hallucination were better but diplopia and blurred vision were still present. Ophthalmology examination revealed. The pupils were round, isochoric, and normoreactive to light and accommodation, and there was no sign of a relative afferent pupillary defect. Ophthalmoscopy showed a papilledema in both eyes. In order to rule out the intracranial pressure and their causes, neuroimaging was requested. An emergent noncontrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) image of the head revealed a hyperdense mass in midfrontal convexity. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbits with and without intravenous gadolinium enhancement further delineated the CT findings and highlighted a large avidly enhancing midline mass within the frontal region measuring approximately 48×50×42 mm in axial dimension, consistent with a meningioma. The patient discharged from psychiatric ward with necessary advices and was admitted to the neurosurgery ward for further evaluation. A first psychosis episode is a clinical condition with principal indication for cerebral CT-scan.

Discussion

Meningioma is a common intracranial tumor with a variety of histomorphologic growth patterns, which are usually easily recognized. The three most common symptoms are headaches, mental status changes, and paresis. Aggression and hallucination are seen in association with a basal frontal lesion and may mimic psychotic syndromes like hypomania and schizophrenia. A first psychosis episode is a clinical condition with principal indication for cerebral CT-scan.

Headache;Meningioma;Hallucination;Neurosurgery Headache;Meningioma;Hallucination;Neurosurgery http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20156 Leila Jahangard Leila Jahangard Research1Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Department of Clinical Psychiatry and Behavioral Disorders, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Research1Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Department of Clinical Psychiatry and Behavioral Disorders, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Ali Ghaleiha Ali Ghaleiha Research1Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Department of Clinical Psychiatry and Behavioral Disorders, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Research1Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Department of Clinical Psychiatry and Behavioral Disorders, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Mohammad Haghighi Mohammad Haghighi Research1Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Department of Clinical Psychiatry and Behavioral Disorders, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Clinical Psychiatry and Behavioral Disorders, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel.: +98-8138285011, Fax: +98-8138274192 Research1Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Department of Clinical Psychiatry and Behavioral Disorders, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Clinical Psychiatry and Behavioral Disorders, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel.: +98-8138285011, Fax: +98-8138274192 Amir Keshavarzi Amir Keshavarzi Research1Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Department of Clinical Psychiatry and Behavioral Disorders, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Research1Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Department of Clinical Psychiatry and Behavioral Disorders, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/ajnpp-20323 Ecstasy Neurotoxicity Ecstasy Neurotoxicity letter letter N-Methyl-3, 4-methylenedioxyamphetamine;Memory;Apoptosis N-Methyl-3, 4-methylenedioxyamphetamine;Memory;Apoptosis http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20323 Mehdi Mehdizaded Mehdi Mehdizaded Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Advanced Technology in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Advanced Technology in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-21886622689 Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Advanced Technology in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Advanced Technology in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-21886622689