Avicenna Journal of Neuro Psych Physiology Avicenna Journal of Neuro Psych Physiology Avicenna J Neuro Psych Physio http://www.avicennajnpp.com 2383-2436 2383-2444 10.5812/ajnpp. en jalali 2017 6 25 gregorian 2017 6 25 1 2
en 10.17795/ajnpp-18788 Cognitive Group Therapy, Stress Management, and Desensitization Through Eye Movement Reprocessing in Reducing Depression Severity Among Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries Cognitive Group Therapy, Stress Management, and Desensitization Through Eye Movement Reprocessing in Reducing Depression Severity Among Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries research-article research-article Background

During the recent decades, there have been two major leaps in treatment of depression using the medication to pacify and relieve depression signs and behavior cognitive therapy. The available evidences emphasize the treatment success with some group training methods including stress management, cognitive group therapy, and eye movement desensitization in reducing depression.

Objectives

The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of these methods on reducing depression in patients with spinal cord injuries.

Patients and Methods

In a quasi-experimental project, 60 patients with spinal cord injuries were recruited and randomly allocated to one of the following treatment groups: stress management, cognitive group therapy, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and no cognitive treatment groups. Depression status and severity was determined using Beck depression inventory.

Results

Although baseline depression state was comparable across the study groups, following training, the mean depression score in the groups received eye movement desensitization (14.60 ± 3.15) and stress management (22.66 ± 3.37) were significantly lower than in cognitive group therapy (27.33 ± 4.15) or in no cognitive treatment groups (32.13 ± 1.80) (P < 0.001). Between-group covariate analysis showed superiority of eye movement desensitization method on other treatment methods including stress management and cognitive group therapy (P < 0.001).

Conclusions

Our study showed higher effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing methods compared with stress management and cognitive group therapy in reducing depression severity in patients with spinal cord injuries.

Background

During the recent decades, there have been two major leaps in treatment of depression using the medication to pacify and relieve depression signs and behavior cognitive therapy. The available evidences emphasize the treatment success with some group training methods including stress management, cognitive group therapy, and eye movement desensitization in reducing depression.

Objectives

The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of these methods on reducing depression in patients with spinal cord injuries.

Patients and Methods

In a quasi-experimental project, 60 patients with spinal cord injuries were recruited and randomly allocated to one of the following treatment groups: stress management, cognitive group therapy, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and no cognitive treatment groups. Depression status and severity was determined using Beck depression inventory.

Results

Although baseline depression state was comparable across the study groups, following training, the mean depression score in the groups received eye movement desensitization (14.60 ± 3.15) and stress management (22.66 ± 3.37) were significantly lower than in cognitive group therapy (27.33 ± 4.15) or in no cognitive treatment groups (32.13 ± 1.80) (P < 0.001). Between-group covariate analysis showed superiority of eye movement desensitization method on other treatment methods including stress management and cognitive group therapy (P < 0.001).

Conclusions

Our study showed higher effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing methods compared with stress management and cognitive group therapy in reducing depression severity in patients with spinal cord injuries.

Depression;Cognitive Therapy;Spinal Injuries;Eye Movement Desensitization and Processing Depression;Cognitive Therapy;Spinal Injuries;Eye Movement Desensitization and Processing http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=18788 Akbar Hemmati Sabet Akbar Hemmati Sabet Young Researchers Club, Research and Sceince Branch, Islamic Azad Univesity, Tehran, IR Iran Young Researchers Club, Research and Sceince Branch, Islamic Azad Univesity, Tehran, IR Iran Alaleh Ashouri Alaleh Ashouri Department of Psychology, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, IR Iran Department of Psychology, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, IR Iran Mohammad Hemmati Mohammad Hemmati Department of Psychology, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, IR Iran Department of Psychology, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, IR Iran Daryush Amini Daryush Amini Department of Psychology, Farhangian University, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Psychology, Farhangian University, Hamadan, IR Iran Mohammad Ahmadpanah Mohammad Ahmadpanah Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan IR Iran; Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan IR Iran. Tel: +98-9183130671, Fax: + 98-8138271066 Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan IR Iran; Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan IR Iran. Tel: +98-9183130671, Fax: + 98-8138271066
en 10.17795/ajnpp-19713 Alzheimer Diseases Alzheimer Diseases letter letter Alzheimer Diseases;Amyloid beta-Peptides;Memory Alzheimer Diseases;Amyloid beta-Peptides;Memory http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=19713 Soheila Madadi Soheila Madadi Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mehdi Mehdizaded Mehdi Mehdizaded Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Advanced Technology in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Advanced Technology in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-21-886622689 Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Advanced Technology in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Advanced Technology in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-21-886622689
en 10.17795/ajnpp-21812 Acute and Chronic Effects of 3-4, Methylenedioxymethamphetamine on Pyramidal Cells of Hippocampus Acute and Chronic Effects of 3-4, Methylenedioxymethamphetamine on Pyramidal Cells of Hippocampus research-article research-article Background

Ecstasy or 3-4, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), as an amphetamine derivate, could lead to learning and memory impairment.

Objectives

As the hippocampus is responsible for learning and memory, herein we evaluated acute and chronic effects of MDMA on the structure of the hippocampus.

Materials and Methods

Male Wistar rats (200-250 g) received single or multiple injections of MDMA (10 mg/kg, IP). At the end of the study, rats were killed and their brains were removed. Hippocampus sections were prepared to study the structure of hippocampus CA1. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16 software and one-way analysis of variance test.

Results

Our findings showed that cell density decreased in MDMA-treated groups in comparison to the intact group. Administration of multiple doses of MDMA significantly decreased the cell number when compared with intact (P < 0.001) and acute (P < 0.01) groups.

Conclusions

These data suggest that MDMA treatment caused cell death in CA1, which was more extensive in the chronic treatment group.

Background

Ecstasy or 3-4, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), as an amphetamine derivate, could lead to learning and memory impairment.

Objectives

As the hippocampus is responsible for learning and memory, herein we evaluated acute and chronic effects of MDMA on the structure of the hippocampus.

Materials and Methods

Male Wistar rats (200-250 g) received single or multiple injections of MDMA (10 mg/kg, IP). At the end of the study, rats were killed and their brains were removed. Hippocampus sections were prepared to study the structure of hippocampus CA1. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16 software and one-way analysis of variance test.

Results

Our findings showed that cell density decreased in MDMA-treated groups in comparison to the intact group. Administration of multiple doses of MDMA significantly decreased the cell number when compared with intact (P < 0.001) and acute (P < 0.01) groups.

Conclusions

These data suggest that MDMA treatment caused cell death in CA1, which was more extensive in the chronic treatment group.

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine;Hippocampus;Cell Death Methylenedioxymethamphetamine;Hippocampus;Cell Death http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=21812 Mohamad Bakhtiar Hesam Shariati Mohamad Bakhtiar Hesam Shariati Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Anatomy, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Anatomy, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Fatemeh Mirzaei Fatemeh Mirzaei Department of Anatomy, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Anatomy, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Sara Soleimani Asl Sara Soleimani Asl Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Anatomy, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Anatomy, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Leila Mosavi Leila Mosavi Department of Pathology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Pathology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Maryam Sohrabi Maryam Sohrabi Department of Anatomy, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-8118380208 Department of Anatomy, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-8118380208
en 10.17795/ajnpp-24208 Neurocognitive Profile of Children With Reading Disability in Kannada Neurocognitive Profile of Children With Reading Disability in Kannada research-article research-article Conclusions

Kannada children with RD were particularly poor on simultaneous and successive processing. Our results support the heterogeneity view of RD.

Results

Independent-samples t tests (two-tailed) showed significant difference between the groups on all the PASS component subtests. The PASS scores of children with RD were scattered unevenly around the average to well below the average range.

Patients and Methods

Children with RD who participated in the study were two grades below the expected reading level for their age but were otherwise normal with respect to intellectual functioning, opportunities, and instructions. The comparison group consisted of age-matched children.

Objectives

We hypothesized that there would be significant differences between children with and without reading disability (RD) on PASS components. Furthermore, we predicted that deficits in children with RD would not be uniform across PASS components.

Background

The present study was based on the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive processes (PASS) theory.

Conclusions

Kannada children with RD were particularly poor on simultaneous and successive processing. Our results support the heterogeneity view of RD.

Results

Independent-samples t tests (two-tailed) showed significant difference between the groups on all the PASS component subtests. The PASS scores of children with RD were scattered unevenly around the average to well below the average range.

Patients and Methods

Children with RD who participated in the study were two grades below the expected reading level for their age but were otherwise normal with respect to intellectual functioning, opportunities, and instructions. The comparison group consisted of age-matched children.

Objectives

We hypothesized that there would be significant differences between children with and without reading disability (RD) on PASS components. Furthermore, we predicted that deficits in children with RD would not be uniform across PASS components.

Background

The present study was based on the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive processes (PASS) theory.

Cognitive;Dyslexia;Neuropsychology Cognitive;Dyslexia;Neuropsychology http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24208 Surendranath P. Nishanimut Surendranath P. Nishanimut Samveda Training and Research Centre, Davangere, India Samveda Training and Research Centre, Davangere, India Prakash Padakannaya Prakash Padakannaya Department of Psychology, University of Mysore, Mysore, India; Department of Psychology, University of Mysore, P. O. Box: 570006, Mysore, Karnataka, India. Tel: +91-8212419743 Department of Psychology, University of Mysore, Mysore, India; Department of Psychology, University of Mysore, P. O. Box: 570006, Mysore, Karnataka, India. Tel: +91-8212419743
en 10.17795/ajnpp-23051 Frequency of Undergoing Mammogram and Pap Test Among Healthcare Providers in Hospitals of Hamadan Frequency of Undergoing Mammogram and Pap Test Among Healthcare Providers in Hospitals of Hamadan research-article research-article Background

The Mammograms and Papanicolaou (Pap) test of women aged 25 to 64 years are Iran’s national strategy for breast and cervical cancer screening, respectively. Widespread primary care services are supplied through a network of primary health centers; nonetheless, little is known about breast and cervical cancer screening-related practices among healthcare workers in hospitals.

Objectives

The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of undergoing breast and cervical cancer screening among Iranian healthcare providers.

Materials and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, 460 female healthcare providers from four public hospitals in Hamadan were recruited. Data were collected using a questionnaire, which included socio-demographic characteristics, family history of breast and cervical cancers, and history of undergoing mammography and Pap smear test.

Results

The rate of positive family history of breast cancer was 15.6%. The mean age at undergoing the first mammogram was 40.7 ± 3.9 years and the mean number of lifetime mammographies was 1.12 ± 0.33. From 460 women in this study, 42.6% had undergone mammography. Specialist physicians had undergone mammography more frequently than other healthcare providers had done. Only 72 participants (15.6%) had positive family history of breast cancer among which 15 (62.5 %) had undergone mammography. The frequency of undergoing mammography was significantly different among different healthcare providers (χ 2 = 12.16; P = 0.007) and positive family history of breast cancer were significant. A total of 268 cases out of 420 had the positive history of undergoing Pap test. The mean age at undergoing the first screening was 27.9 ± 4.6 years and the mean number of lifetime Pap test was 1.64 ± 0.92. Most of the midwives (88.1%) had undergone Pap test; the rate was 77.8% in specialist physicians, 61.8% in nurses, and 51.7% in general practitioner. Only 14 out of 420 respondents had positive family history of cervical cancer among which 13 (92.9%) had undergone Pap rest. The frequency of undergoing Pap test was significantly different among different healthcare providers (χ2 = 12.16, P = 0.007) and positive family history of cervical cancer among those older than 40 years (χ2 = 7.24, P = 0.02) were significant.

Conclusions

Screening for gynecologic cancer is important in early diagnosis and women wellbeing. The acceptance of cancer screening test was low in most of the healthcare providers. The attitude and practice of healthcare provider can affect women’s acceptance of cancer screening test.

Background

The Mammograms and Papanicolaou (Pap) test of women aged 25 to 64 years are Iran’s national strategy for breast and cervical cancer screening, respectively. Widespread primary care services are supplied through a network of primary health centers; nonetheless, little is known about breast and cervical cancer screening-related practices among healthcare workers in hospitals.

Objectives

The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of undergoing breast and cervical cancer screening among Iranian healthcare providers.

Materials and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, 460 female healthcare providers from four public hospitals in Hamadan were recruited. Data were collected using a questionnaire, which included socio-demographic characteristics, family history of breast and cervical cancers, and history of undergoing mammography and Pap smear test.

Results

The rate of positive family history of breast cancer was 15.6%. The mean age at undergoing the first mammogram was 40.7 ± 3.9 years and the mean number of lifetime mammographies was 1.12 ± 0.33. From 460 women in this study, 42.6% had undergone mammography. Specialist physicians had undergone mammography more frequently than other healthcare providers had done. Only 72 participants (15.6%) had positive family history of breast cancer among which 15 (62.5 %) had undergone mammography. The frequency of undergoing mammography was significantly different among different healthcare providers (χ 2 = 12.16; P = 0.007) and positive family history of breast cancer were significant. A total of 268 cases out of 420 had the positive history of undergoing Pap test. The mean age at undergoing the first screening was 27.9 ± 4.6 years and the mean number of lifetime Pap test was 1.64 ± 0.92. Most of the midwives (88.1%) had undergone Pap test; the rate was 77.8% in specialist physicians, 61.8% in nurses, and 51.7% in general practitioner. Only 14 out of 420 respondents had positive family history of cervical cancer among which 13 (92.9%) had undergone Pap rest. The frequency of undergoing Pap test was significantly different among different healthcare providers (χ2 = 12.16, P = 0.007) and positive family history of cervical cancer among those older than 40 years (χ2 = 7.24, P = 0.02) were significant.

Conclusions

Screening for gynecologic cancer is important in early diagnosis and women wellbeing. The acceptance of cancer screening test was low in most of the healthcare providers. The attitude and practice of healthcare provider can affect women’s acceptance of cancer screening test.

Mammogram;Women;Cancer;Screening Mammogram;Women;Cancer;Screening http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=23051 Shahla Nasrolahi Shahla Nasrolahi Research Center of Endometrium and Endometriosis, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences,Hamadan, IR Iran; Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Research Center of Endometrium and Endometriosis, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences,Hamadan, IR Iran; Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Nasrin Matinnia Nasrin Matinnia Department of Nursing, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan, IR Iran; Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Nursing, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan, IR Iran; Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Mohammad Haghighi Mohammad Haghighi Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Mohammad Ali Seif Rabiei Mohammad Ali Seif Rabiei Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Marjan Ghahri Saremi Marjan Ghahri Saremi Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Ali Ghaleiha Ali Ghaleiha Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9123378337, Fax: +98-81138271066 Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9123378337, Fax: +98-81138271066
en 10.17795/ajnpp-24450 Interaction Between L-Type Calcium Channels and Antagonist of Cannabinoid System on Anxiety in Male Rat Interaction Between L-Type Calcium Channels and Antagonist of Cannabinoid System on Anxiety in Male Rat research-article research-article Conclusions

IP injection of CB1 receptor antagonist might have an anxiogenic profile in rat, whereas calcium channel blocker attenuated the anxiogenic effect of AM251. Our results suggest that there is an interaction between functions of L-type Ca2+ channels and cannabinoid system in anxiety.

Background

The elevated plus-maze (EPM) has been broadly used to investigate anxiolytic and anxiogenic compounds. There is little information about the effect of interaction between calcium channels and cannabinoid system on the phenomenon of anxiety.

Objectives

This study aimed to examine the effects of acute and chronic coadministration of AM251, as cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, and Verapamil, as L-type Ca2+ channels blocker, on EPM test in rats.

Materials and Methods

The data were obtained from male Wistar rat, weighing 220 to 260 g. Animals were allocated to five groups: Control, Verapamil, AM251, acute Verapamil + AM251, and chronic (injection for 8 days) Verapamil + AM251 groups. The percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM, the time spent in the open arms, and the number of entries into the closed arms during ten minutes was recorded.

Results

Intraperitoneally (IP) injection of AM251 before EPM trial decreased open arms exploration and open arm entry. On the other hand, Verapamil increased open arms exploration and open arm entry. Combined injection of Verapamil and AM251 had conflicting effects on the responses of each of these two compounds alone. AM251 and Verapamil had no effects on the number of closed arm entries.

Conclusions

IP injection of CB1 receptor antagonist might have an anxiogenic profile in rat, whereas calcium channel blocker attenuated the anxiogenic effect of AM251. Our results suggest that there is an interaction between functions of L-type Ca2+ channels and cannabinoid system in anxiety.

Background

The elevated plus-maze (EPM) has been broadly used to investigate anxiolytic and anxiogenic compounds. There is little information about the effect of interaction between calcium channels and cannabinoid system on the phenomenon of anxiety.

Objectives

This study aimed to examine the effects of acute and chronic coadministration of AM251, as cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, and Verapamil, as L-type Ca2+ channels blocker, on EPM test in rats.

Materials and Methods

The data were obtained from male Wistar rat, weighing 220 to 260 g. Animals were allocated to five groups: Control, Verapamil, AM251, acute Verapamil + AM251, and chronic (injection for 8 days) Verapamil + AM251 groups. The percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM, the time spent in the open arms, and the number of entries into the closed arms during ten minutes was recorded.

Results

Intraperitoneally (IP) injection of AM251 before EPM trial decreased open arms exploration and open arm entry. On the other hand, Verapamil increased open arms exploration and open arm entry. Combined injection of Verapamil and AM251 had conflicting effects on the responses of each of these two compounds alone. AM251 and Verapamil had no effects on the number of closed arm entries.

Verapamil;L-Type Calcium Channels;AM251;Rat;Anxiety Verapamil;L-Type Calcium Channels;AM251;Rat;Anxiety http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24450 Alireza Komaki Alireza Komaki Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8118380267, Fax: +98-8118380131 Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8118380267, Fax: +98-8118380131 Aezam Haghgooyan Aezam Haghgooyan Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Siamak Shahidi Siamak Shahidi Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Abdolrahman Sarihi Abdolrahman Sarihi Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Iraj Salehi Iraj Salehi Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/ajnpp-24600 Effect of Lemon Verbena on Memory of Male Rats Effect of Lemon Verbena on Memory of Male Rats research-article research-article Conclusions

These results indicated that aqueous extract of lemon verbena (≥ 100 mg/kg) has undesirable effects on memory; however, understanding the underling mechanisms needs further investigation.

Background

Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) has been known to have various pharmacologic activities.

Objectives

Lemon verbena leaves are used to make an herbal tea, which is traditionally used for treating spasms, common cold, severe abdominal pain, indigestion, insomnia, anxiety, and headache. Although it has been known to have various pharmacologic activities, no scientific study has been done to assess its effects yet. In this study aimed to assess the effect of the aqueous extract of lemon verbena on memory of male rats by using the passive avoidance task.

Materials and Methods

In this study, Wistar male rats (weight, 180-250 g) were recruited. Aqueous extract of lemon verbena leaves was prepared. A total of 40 Wistar male rats were randomly allocated to five groups (n = 8). Saline for control group and aqueous extract of lemon verbena in four experimental groups were administered intraperitoneally (respectively 10, 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) for seven days. Then passive avoidance learning test was used to evaluate learning and memory. On the seventh day, acquisition test was performed an hour after treatment and the retention test was performed on the next day.

Results

Analysis of data showed that in comparison to controls, treatment with the aqueous extract of lemon verbena (≥ 100 mg/kg) had decreased the step-through latency (STL) (P < 0.001). Moreover, treatment of the rats with the extract doses of ≥ 500 mg/kg had increased the total time spent in the dark compartment (TDC) in comparison to controls (P < 0.001).

Conclusions

These results indicated that aqueous extract of lemon verbena (≥ 100 mg/kg) has undesirable effects on memory; however, understanding the underling mechanisms needs further investigation.

Background

Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) has been known to have various pharmacologic activities.

Objectives

Lemon verbena leaves are used to make an herbal tea, which is traditionally used for treating spasms, common cold, severe abdominal pain, indigestion, insomnia, anxiety, and headache. Although it has been known to have various pharmacologic activities, no scientific study has been done to assess its effects yet. In this study aimed to assess the effect of the aqueous extract of lemon verbena on memory of male rats by using the passive avoidance task.

Materials and Methods

In this study, Wistar male rats (weight, 180-250 g) were recruited. Aqueous extract of lemon verbena leaves was prepared. A total of 40 Wistar male rats were randomly allocated to five groups (n = 8). Saline for control group and aqueous extract of lemon verbena in four experimental groups were administered intraperitoneally (respectively 10, 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) for seven days. Then passive avoidance learning test was used to evaluate learning and memory. On the seventh day, acquisition test was performed an hour after treatment and the retention test was performed on the next day.

Results

Analysis of data showed that in comparison to controls, treatment with the aqueous extract of lemon verbena (≥ 100 mg/kg) had decreased the step-through latency (STL) (P < 0.001). Moreover, treatment of the rats with the extract doses of ≥ 500 mg/kg had increased the total time spent in the dark compartment (TDC) in comparison to controls (P < 0.001).

Vervain;Learning;Memory;Rats Vervain;Learning;Memory;Rats http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24600 Mojgan Veisi Mojgan Veisi Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Siamak Shahidi Siamak Shahidi Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8138380462, Fax: +98-8138380208 Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8138380462, Fax: +98-8138380208 Alireza Komaki Alireza Komaki Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Abdolrahman Sarihi Abdolrahman Sarihi Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/ajnpp-24260 Factors Related to Burglary From the Perspective of Burglars: A Qualitative Study Factors Related to Burglary From the Perspective of Burglars: A Qualitative Study research-article research-article Conclusions

Results from present study introduced several factors in regard of burglary; among these, personal and family factors were the most important. The present study could be a guidance to design proper interventions and introduce efficient measures to prevent burglary commitment among at risk groups.

Results

Five main themes resulted from interviews. Codes included “personal factors, family attitudes and conditions, others' effects, regulations on burglary punishment, and availability of stolen property”.

Patients and Methods

In a qualitative research based on contractive content analysis, 19 male convict of burglary were studied. They all stated their satisfaction with attending the study and were selected objectively to gain data saturation in Kermanshah Central Prison. Participants went under deep individual interviews. Semi-structured general questions were designed as interview guide to be answered openly and descriptively and sample answers guided its process. All interviews were tape-recorded and transcripts were made later. Data were analyzed and conscious satisfaction, obscurity, information security, withdrawal from participation on will, and moral commitments were confirmed.

Background

Among different crimes, burglary is a common criminal attitude that deranges security in society.

Objectives

The aim of present study was investigated factors and incentives resulting in commitment of robbery according to prisoners accused of burglary in central prison of Kermanshah Province.

Conclusions

Results from present study introduced several factors in regard of burglary; among these, personal and family factors were the most important. The present study could be a guidance to design proper interventions and introduce efficient measures to prevent burglary commitment among at risk groups.

Results

Five main themes resulted from interviews. Codes included “personal factors, family attitudes and conditions, others' effects, regulations on burglary punishment, and availability of stolen property”.

Patients and Methods

In a qualitative research based on contractive content analysis, 19 male convict of burglary were studied. They all stated their satisfaction with attending the study and were selected objectively to gain data saturation in Kermanshah Central Prison. Participants went under deep individual interviews. Semi-structured general questions were designed as interview guide to be answered openly and descriptively and sample answers guided its process. All interviews were tape-recorded and transcripts were made later. Data were analyzed and conscious satisfaction, obscurity, information security, withdrawal from participation on will, and moral commitments were confirmed.

Background

Among different crimes, burglary is a common criminal attitude that deranges security in society.

Objectives

The aim of present study was investigated factors and incentives resulting in commitment of robbery according to prisoners accused of burglary in central prison of Kermanshah Province.

Crime;Prison;Qualitative Research Crime;Prison;Qualitative Research http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24260 Farzad Jalilian Farzad Jalilian Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, IR Iran Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, IR Iran Maryam Changizi Maryam Changizi Abadan College of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Abadan, IR Iran Abadan College of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Abadan, IR Iran Mohammad Ahmadpanah Mohammad Ahmadpanah Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Mohamad Reza Amoei Mohamad Reza Amoei Applied Research Bureau of the Police, Kermanshah, IR Iran Applied Research Bureau of the Police, Kermanshah, IR Iran Firoozeh Mostafavi Firoozeh Mostafavi Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3137922710 Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3137922710