Avicenna Journal of Neuro Psych Physiology Avicenna Journal of Neuro Psych Physiology Avicenna J Neuro Psych Physio http://www.avicennajnpp.com 2383-2436 2383-2444 10.5812/ajnpp. en jalali 2017 6 27 gregorian 2017 6 27 2 1
en 10.17795/ajnpp-26706 Depression Prevalence and Underlying Risk Factors in the Elderly of Hamadan, Iran Depression Prevalence and Underlying Risk Factors in the Elderly of Hamadan, Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

In our study, depression had a remarkable prevalence in elderly, especially in women and in those who suffered from inactive or sedentary life.

Background

Depression is the most frequent psychiatric disorder in the elderly. Nowadays, because of the rise in the absolute number and proportion of elders in societies, the numbers of elders with this condition may be increasing.

Objectives

This study was conducted to evaluate depression prevalence and its underlying risk factors in the elder population of Hamadan, Iran.

Patients and Methods

In a descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study, 240 over 65 year old subjects (121 males, 119 females), were enrolled in the study. Depression was diagnosed based on the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale Revised (CESD-R) questionnaire and pooled data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software (SPSS Inc. Chicago IL., USA).

Results

Of the total number of 240 elderly, 116 (48.3%) had depression (score 17 or more, based on CESD-R questionnaire). Women were significantly more affected (61.3% vs. 35.7%, P value < 0.001). Other factors, which revealed a significant relationship with depression, were: illiteracy, being jobless or retired, having a chronic disease and dissatisfaction of daily activities. After performing a logistic regression method, only two variables (sex and dissatisfaction of daily activities) were significantly related to depression in the study population.

Conclusions

In our study, depression had a remarkable prevalence in elderly, especially in women and in those who suffered from inactive or sedentary life.

Background

Depression is the most frequent psychiatric disorder in the elderly. Nowadays, because of the rise in the absolute number and proportion of elders in societies, the numbers of elders with this condition may be increasing.

Objectives

This study was conducted to evaluate depression prevalence and its underlying risk factors in the elder population of Hamadan, Iran.

Patients and Methods

In a descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study, 240 over 65 year old subjects (121 males, 119 females), were enrolled in the study. Depression was diagnosed based on the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale Revised (CESD-R) questionnaire and pooled data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software (SPSS Inc. Chicago IL., USA).

Results

Of the total number of 240 elderly, 116 (48.3%) had depression (score 17 or more, based on CESD-R questionnaire). Women were significantly more affected (61.3% vs. 35.7%, P value < 0.001). Other factors, which revealed a significant relationship with depression, were: illiteracy, being jobless or retired, having a chronic disease and dissatisfaction of daily activities. After performing a logistic regression method, only two variables (sex and dissatisfaction of daily activities) were significantly related to depression in the study population.

Depression;Iran;Aged;Risk Factors;Sedentary Lifestyle;Women Depression;Iran;Aged;Risk Factors;Sedentary Lifestyle;Women http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=26706 Mohamad Ali Seif Rabiei Mohamad Ali Seif Rabiei Department of Community Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Community Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Ali Ghaleiha Ali Ghaleiha Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan IR, Iran. Tel: +98-9123378337 Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan IR, Iran. Tel: +98-9123378337 Seyed Mohamad Hosseini Seyed Mohamad Hosseini Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Mahshid Nikooseresht Mahshid Nikooseresht Department of Anesthesiology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Anesthesiology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Mahya Zahirnia Mahya Zahirnia Department of Community Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Community Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/ajnpp-25761 The Antinociceptive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Bryonia dioica in Male Rats The Antinociceptive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of <italic>Bryonia dioica</italic> in Male Rats research-article research-article Conclusions

The experimental data verified that HEBD leaves displayed remarkable antinociceptive activity. Furthermore, the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone blocked the antinociceptive effect of the extract in all tests, suggesting that HEBD may act both at peripheral and central levels.

Results

Using writhing, tail-flick, and formalin tests, dramatic antinociceptive effects were observed for HEBD at the dose of 300 mg/kg with P < 0.01. The results of data analysis also revealed that there was no significant difference between indomethacin and dose of 300 mg/kg of extract in formalin test. LD50 of the plant was 4200 mg/kg.

Materials and Methods

In this experimental study, 42 adult male rats were divided into 7 groups: control, HEBD (80, 100, and 300 mg/kg, ip), morphine (1 mg/kg, ip), indomethacin (1 mg/kg, ip), and naloxone (1 mg/kg ip). In order to assess the analgesic effects of the extract, writhing, tail-flick, and formalin tests were used. Also, Tukey post hoc and 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to analyze the data.

Background

Side effects of synthetic analgesic drugs in the clinical practice have drawn researchers’ attention on developing the herbal medicine as more appropriate analgesic agents.

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive effect of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Bryonia dioica (HEBD) on male rats.

Conclusions

The experimental data verified that HEBD leaves displayed remarkable antinociceptive activity. Furthermore, the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone blocked the antinociceptive effect of the extract in all tests, suggesting that HEBD may act both at peripheral and central levels.

Results

Using writhing, tail-flick, and formalin tests, dramatic antinociceptive effects were observed for HEBD at the dose of 300 mg/kg with P < 0.01. The results of data analysis also revealed that there was no significant difference between indomethacin and dose of 300 mg/kg of extract in formalin test. LD50 of the plant was 4200 mg/kg.

Materials and Methods

In this experimental study, 42 adult male rats were divided into 7 groups: control, HEBD (80, 100, and 300 mg/kg, ip), morphine (1 mg/kg, ip), indomethacin (1 mg/kg, ip), and naloxone (1 mg/kg ip). In order to assess the analgesic effects of the extract, writhing, tail-flick, and formalin tests were used. Also, Tukey post hoc and 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to analyze the data.

Background

Side effects of synthetic analgesic drugs in the clinical practice have drawn researchers’ attention on developing the herbal medicine as more appropriate analgesic agents.

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive effect of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Bryonia dioica (HEBD) on male rats.

Pain;Plants, Medicinal;Bryonia;Formaldehyde;Rats Pain;Plants, Medicinal;Bryonia;Formaldehyde;Rats http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25761 Mohammad Zarei Mohammad Zarei Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Physiology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Physiology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Saeed Mohammadi Saeed Mohammadi Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan, IR Iran; Professor Mussivand Blvd, Hamadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8134494000, Fax: +98-8134494026 Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan, IR Iran; Professor Mussivand Blvd, Hamadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8134494000, Fax: +98-8134494026 Nasreen Abolhassani Nasreen Abolhassani Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Mahtab Asgari Nematian Mahtab Asgari Nematian Department of Biology, Hamadan Branch, Payam-noor University, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Biology, Hamadan Branch, Payam-noor University, Hamadan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/ajnpp-27634 Wired for Healthy College: Electronic-Intervention for Addressing Substance Abuse Prevention Wired for Healthy College: Electronic-Intervention for Addressing Substance Abuse Prevention letter letter Substance Abuse;Prevention;Health Substance Abuse;Prevention;Health http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=27634 Farzad Jalilian Farzad Jalilian Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, IR Iran Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, IR Iran Mohammad Ahmadpanah Mohammad Ahmadpanah Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Behzad Karami Matin Behzad Karami Matin Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Motahereh Khalvandi Motahereh Khalvandi Department of Applied Linguistics, Ilam University, Ilam, IR Iran Department of Applied Linguistics, Ilam University, Ilam, IR Iran Ahmad Ali Eslami Ahmad Ali Eslami Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3137922710 Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3137922710
en 10.17795/ajnpp-27189 Anxiolytic Effect of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae) Extract in Male Rats Anxiolytic Effect of <italic>Borago officinalis</italic> (Boraginaceae) Extract in Male Rats research-article research-article Background

Medicinal plants with natural antioxidants have been shown to be beneficial in a variety of complications such as anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) is one of the most widely used models to assess anxiety in small rodents.

Objectives

This study was designed to characterize the anxiolytic-like activity of Borago officinalis (Linnaeus, family Boraginaceae) or Borage flowers extract, using an EPM test.

Materials and Methods

Male Wistar rats weighing 220-250 grams were used in the present study. Thirty minutes after an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of the Borage extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) or saline, each animal was placed in the EPM. Animal behaviors in the experimental sessions were recorded by a video camera located above the maze, interfaced with a monitor and a computer in an adjacent room. The time spent in the open arms, the percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM and the numbers of entries into the closed arms were recorded for five minutes.

Results

Statistical analysis indicated that acute IP injection of Borage extract before an EPM trial significantly increased the time spent in open arms and percentage of open arms entries. Whereas, the extract had no effect on the number of closed arm entries.

Conclusions

Our results demonstrated that injection of Borage extract might have an anxiolytic profile in rats. However, the exact mechanism (s) related to the active compound (s) in Borage extract should be elucidated in future studies.

Background

Medicinal plants with natural antioxidants have been shown to be beneficial in a variety of complications such as anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) is one of the most widely used models to assess anxiety in small rodents.

Objectives

This study was designed to characterize the anxiolytic-like activity of Borago officinalis (Linnaeus, family Boraginaceae) or Borage flowers extract, using an EPM test.

Materials and Methods

Male Wistar rats weighing 220-250 grams were used in the present study. Thirty minutes after an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of the Borage extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) or saline, each animal was placed in the EPM. Animal behaviors in the experimental sessions were recorded by a video camera located above the maze, interfaced with a monitor and a computer in an adjacent room. The time spent in the open arms, the percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM and the numbers of entries into the closed arms were recorded for five minutes.

Results

Statistical analysis indicated that acute IP injection of Borage extract before an EPM trial significantly increased the time spent in open arms and percentage of open arms entries. Whereas, the extract had no effect on the number of closed arm entries.

Conclusions

Our results demonstrated that injection of Borage extract might have an anxiolytic profile in rats. However, the exact mechanism (s) related to the active compound (s) in Borage extract should be elucidated in future studies.

Borago;Rat;Medicinal Plants;Antioxidants Borago;Rat;Medicinal Plants;Antioxidants http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=27189 Alireza Komaki Alireza Komaki Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8138380267, Fax: +98-8138380131 Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8138380267, Fax: +98-8138380131 Bahman Rasouli Bahman Rasouli Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Siamak Shahidi Siamak Shahidi Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/ajnpp-27267 Protective Effect of Vitamin E Against Lead-induced Memory and Learning Impairment in Male Rats Protective Effect of Vitamin E Against Lead-induced Memory and Learning Impairment in Male Rats research-article research-article Conclusions

According to the results of this study, administration of vitamin E to rats counteracts the negative effects of Pb on learning and memory. To more precisely extrapolate these findings to humans, future clinical studies are warranted.

Results

The results showed that Pb caused impairment in acquisition and retrieval processes in passive avoidance learning. Vitamin E reversed learning and memory deficits in pre, post or co- exposure with Pb (P < 0.001).

Objectives

The purpose of the present study was to assess the protective effects of vitamin E against Pb-induced amnesia.

Materials and Methods

Forty-eight male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided equally into the saline, Pb, Pb + vitamin E, and vitamin E alone groups. To induce Pb toxicity, rats received water that contained 0.2% Pb instead of regular water for 1 month. Rats pretreated, treated or post treated with vitamin E (150 mg/kg) for 2 months. Passive avoidance learning was assessed using Shuttle-Box after two months. Retention was tested 24 and 48 hours after training.

Background

Lead (Pb2+) is a neurotoxin substance that has been known for its adverse effects on central nervous system and memory. Previous studies reported the potential effect of vitamin E as a memory enhancer.

Conclusions

According to the results of this study, administration of vitamin E to rats counteracts the negative effects of Pb on learning and memory. To more precisely extrapolate these findings to humans, future clinical studies are warranted.

Results

The results showed that Pb caused impairment in acquisition and retrieval processes in passive avoidance learning. Vitamin E reversed learning and memory deficits in pre, post or co- exposure with Pb (P < 0.001).

Objectives

The purpose of the present study was to assess the protective effects of vitamin E against Pb-induced amnesia.

Materials and Methods

Forty-eight male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided equally into the saline, Pb, Pb + vitamin E, and vitamin E alone groups. To induce Pb toxicity, rats received water that contained 0.2% Pb instead of regular water for 1 month. Rats pretreated, treated or post treated with vitamin E (150 mg/kg) for 2 months. Passive avoidance learning was assessed using Shuttle-Box after two months. Retention was tested 24 and 48 hours after training.

Background

Lead (Pb2+) is a neurotoxin substance that has been known for its adverse effects on central nervous system and memory. Previous studies reported the potential effect of vitamin E as a memory enhancer.

Lead;Vitamin E;Avoidance Learning Lead;Vitamin E;Avoidance Learning http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=27267 Iraj Salehi Iraj Salehi Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Maryam Sahab Soleimani Maryam Sahab Soleimani Department of Physiology, School of Sciences, Hamadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Physiology, School of Sciences, Hamadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan, IR Iran Mahsa Poorhamze Mahsa Poorhamze Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Fahimeh Ghasemi Moravej Fahimeh Ghasemi Moravej Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Alireza Komaki Alireza Komaki Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Sara Soleimani Asl Sara Soleimani Asl Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-8138380208 Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-8138380208
en 10.17795/ajnpp-26013 Is Web-Based Education Effective in Reducing Belief Toward Drug Abuse Among College Students? Is Web-Based Education Effective in Reducing Belief Toward Drug Abuse Among College Students? research-article research-article Background

Addiction is considered a basic structural problem in modern society, and seems to reach an epidemic scale in the last decades. Choosing a method to fulfill the intervention is an important issue to conduct educational interventions to prevent addictive behaviors. In this regard, web-based education has been widely used to introduce preventive programs to risky behaviors during recent years.

Objectives

The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of web-based education intervention to decrease positive beliefs encouraging drug abuse among male medical college students.

Patients and Methods

This was a prospective-retrospective intervention study that was conducted among 75 male students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran, during 2014. t-test was used for the statistical analysis.

Results

Our findings indicated that the belief toward drug abuse was significantly reduced after education (P = 0.003). In addition, compared pre and post-intervention scores on survey items showed a significant reduction in enjoyment, improve energy, attraction, higher strength, and higher self-esteem items after education (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant reduction in excitement, relaxation, improved mental ability and forgetting problems after education (P > 0.05).

Conclusions

Our findings showed that designing and implementing web-based educational intervention could be effective to reduce the positive beliefs toward drug abuse among college students.

Background

Addiction is considered a basic structural problem in modern society, and seems to reach an epidemic scale in the last decades. Choosing a method to fulfill the intervention is an important issue to conduct educational interventions to prevent addictive behaviors. In this regard, web-based education has been widely used to introduce preventive programs to risky behaviors during recent years.

Objectives

The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of web-based education intervention to decrease positive beliefs encouraging drug abuse among male medical college students.

Patients and Methods

This was a prospective-retrospective intervention study that was conducted among 75 male students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran, during 2014. t-test was used for the statistical analysis.

Results

Our findings indicated that the belief toward drug abuse was significantly reduced after education (P = 0.003). In addition, compared pre and post-intervention scores on survey items showed a significant reduction in enjoyment, improve energy, attraction, higher strength, and higher self-esteem items after education (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant reduction in excitement, relaxation, improved mental ability and forgetting problems after education (P > 0.05).

Conclusions

Our findings showed that designing and implementing web-based educational intervention could be effective to reduce the positive beliefs toward drug abuse among college students.

Education;Addictive Behavior;Beliefs Education;Addictive Behavior;Beliefs http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=26013 Farzad Jalilian Farzad Jalilian Student Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Student Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, IR Iran Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, IR Iran Mohammad Ahmadpanah Mohammad Ahmadpanah Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Behzad Karami Matin Behzad Karami Matin Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Mari Ataee Mari Ataee Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Ahmad Ali Eslami Ahmad Ali Eslami Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-3137922710 Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-3137922710
en 10.17795/ajnpp-24332 Prediction of Resiliency on the Basis of Social Support in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Prediction of Resiliency on the Basis of Social Support in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis research-article research-article Conclusions

Components of social support, totally account for 19% of resiliency variance value of patient; the components of social support, family, friends, and other people’s support at only had lower contribution in predicting resiliency. Support of this group of people to increase their resiliency seems necessary.

Results

There was a significant association between social support and resiliency. Moreover, there was a strong and positive association between social support and resiliency (r = 0.449, P < 0.01); therefore, the association was significant and the higher the total amount of social support of patients with MS is the higher the level their resiliency would be.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to predict resiliency on the basis of social support in patients with MS.

Patients and Methods

In this descriptive study, 108 patients with MS were selected in Farshchian Hospital of Hamadan. Data were collected by Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and Social Support Appraisals (SS-A) questionnaire. Data analyses were conducted by SPSS in two descriptive and regression statistical levels.

Background

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the nervous system and predominantly occurs in women between 20 to 40 years old. Various geographical, familial, genetic, environmental factors, and factors involved in the immune system and infections in childhood are involved in this disease. Motor, sensory, balance, vision, and sphincter systems are affected by MS; therefore, it is a major negative event in the life that will have adverse effects on health and social life. Social support is one of the factors involved in the resiliency of these patients.

Conclusions

Components of social support, totally account for 19% of resiliency variance value of patient; the components of social support, family, friends, and other people’s support at only had lower contribution in predicting resiliency. Support of this group of people to increase their resiliency seems necessary.

Results

There was a significant association between social support and resiliency. Moreover, there was a strong and positive association between social support and resiliency (r = 0.449, P < 0.01); therefore, the association was significant and the higher the total amount of social support of patients with MS is the higher the level their resiliency would be.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to predict resiliency on the basis of social support in patients with MS.

Patients and Methods

In this descriptive study, 108 patients with MS were selected in Farshchian Hospital of Hamadan. Data were collected by Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and Social Support Appraisals (SS-A) questionnaire. Data analyses were conducted by SPSS in two descriptive and regression statistical levels.

Background

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the nervous system and predominantly occurs in women between 20 to 40 years old. Various geographical, familial, genetic, environmental factors, and factors involved in the immune system and infections in childhood are involved in this disease. Motor, sensory, balance, vision, and sphincter systems are affected by MS; therefore, it is a major negative event in the life that will have adverse effects on health and social life. Social support is one of the factors involved in the resiliency of these patients.

Multiple Sclerosis;Questionnaires;Patients Multiple Sclerosis;Questionnaires;Patients http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24332 Zohreh Golzari Movaghar Zohreh Golzari Movaghar Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan, IR Iran Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan, IR Iran Jalil Aslani Jalil Aslani Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan, IR Iran Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan, IR Iran Mehrdokht Mazdeh Mehrdokht Mazdeh Department of Neurology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Neurology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9121852797 Department of Neurology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Neurology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9121852797
en 10.17795/ajnpp-27149 In Vivo Antinociceptive Effects of Persian Shallot (Allium hirtifolium) in Male Rat In Vivo Antinociceptive Effects of Persian Shallot (<italic>Allium</italic> <italic>hirtifolium</italic>) in Male Rat research-article research-article Conclusions

It looks that A. hirtifolium has antinociceptive effects that might be due to flavonoids and saponins in plant the analgesic effect of which was demonstrated previously.

Results

Allium hirtifolium extract at (200 mg/kg dosage), alone and in combination with aspirin, had shown antinociceptive effect in writhing, tail-flick, and formalin tests (P < 0.01). Allium hirtifolium extract (at 100 mg/kg dosage) had just shown analgesic effects on tail-flick and formalin (chronic phase) tests.

Objectives

In this investigation, analgesic effects of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Allium hirtifolium were studied in male rats.

Materials and Methods

A total of 48 adult male rats were divided eight groups: control, intraperitoneal 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of extract, 200 mg/kg of A. hirtifolium extract plus aspirin, aspirin (1 mg/kg), morphine (1 mg/kg), and 200 mg/kg of A. hirtifolium extract plus naloxone (1 mg/kg). The analgesic effects of A. hirtifolium were assessed with writhing, tail-flick, and formalin tests. The data were compared with control by one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test.

Background

The tendency toward using herbal plants instead of synthetic drugs is increasing in recent years because of their lower adverse effects and high varieties of efficient components.

Conclusions

It looks that A. hirtifolium has antinociceptive effects that might be due to flavonoids and saponins in plant the analgesic effect of which was demonstrated previously.

Results

Allium hirtifolium extract at (200 mg/kg dosage), alone and in combination with aspirin, had shown antinociceptive effect in writhing, tail-flick, and formalin tests (P < 0.01). Allium hirtifolium extract (at 100 mg/kg dosage) had just shown analgesic effects on tail-flick and formalin (chronic phase) tests.

Objectives

In this investigation, analgesic effects of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Allium hirtifolium were studied in male rats.

Materials and Methods

A total of 48 adult male rats were divided eight groups: control, intraperitoneal 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of extract, 200 mg/kg of A. hirtifolium extract plus aspirin, aspirin (1 mg/kg), morphine (1 mg/kg), and 200 mg/kg of A. hirtifolium extract plus naloxone (1 mg/kg). The analgesic effects of A. hirtifolium were assessed with writhing, tail-flick, and formalin tests. The data were compared with control by one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test.

Background

The tendency toward using herbal plants instead of synthetic drugs is increasing in recent years because of their lower adverse effects and high varieties of efficient components.

Allium hirtifolium;Formaldehyde;Saponins;Flavonoids Allium hirtifolium;Formaldehyde;Saponins;Flavonoids http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=27149 Saeed Mohammadi Saeed Mohammadi Biology Department, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Biology Department, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Zarei Mohammad Zarei Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Physiology Department, Medicine Faculty, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 6517838736, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8138380462, Fax: +98-8138380464 Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Physiology Department, Medicine Faculty, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 6517838736, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8138380462, Fax: +98-8138380464 Minoo Mahmoodi Minoo Mahmoodi Biology Department, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Hamadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan, IR Iran Biology Department, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Hamadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan, IR Iran Mohammad Mahdi Zarei Mohammad Mahdi Zarei Veterinary Medicine Faculty, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, IR Iran Veterinary Medicine Faculty, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, IR Iran Mahtab Asgari Nematian Mahtab Asgari Nematian Biology Department, Hamadan Branch, Payam-Noor University, Hamadan, IR Iran Biology Department, Hamadan Branch, Payam-Noor University, Hamadan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/ajnpp-27152 Factors Associated With Tobacco Smoking Among Male Adolescents: the Role of Psychologic, Behavioral, and Demographic Risk Factors Factors Associated With Tobacco Smoking Among Male Adolescents: the Role of Psychologic, Behavioral, and Demographic Risk Factors research-article research-article Conclusions

The results showed that the effect of several psychosocial, behavioral, and demographic risk factors on adolescents' smoking status. Thus, design and implementation of interventions based on the results of the present study may be effective in preventing tobacco smoking among adolescents.

Patients and Methods

This cross-sectional study was performed on 810 male adolescents recruited through cluster random sampling method in Hamadan in 2014. The participants received a self-administered questionnaire that contained questions about tobacco smoking behavior and demographic, behavioral, and psychologic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS16 through independent-samples t test, Chi square, and logistic regression.

Results

A total of 139 persons (17.1%) were tobacco smoker and the mean (SD) age at smoking initiation was 13.7 (2.2) years. Sense of need, decreasing stress, having a smoker friend, and inability to reject smoking suggestion were common reasons associated with tobacco smoking (P < 0.05). In addition, statistically significant differences between tobacco smokers and nonsmokers were found in the age, grade, mother's job, and education (P < 0.05). In comparison to non-smokers, tobacco smokers evaluated a typical smoker as less immature, more popular, more attractive, more self-confident, more independent, and less selfish person (P < 0.05).

Background

Tobacco smoking among adolescents has been a concern for researchers and health organizations in recent years. However, predisposing factors to smoking initiation among Iranian adolescents are not well recognized.

Objectives

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and to investigate the role of psychologic, behavioral, and demographic risk factors in adolescents' smoking status.

Conclusions

The results showed that the effect of several psychosocial, behavioral, and demographic risk factors on adolescents' smoking status. Thus, design and implementation of interventions based on the results of the present study may be effective in preventing tobacco smoking among adolescents.

Patients and Methods

This cross-sectional study was performed on 810 male adolescents recruited through cluster random sampling method in Hamadan in 2014. The participants received a self-administered questionnaire that contained questions about tobacco smoking behavior and demographic, behavioral, and psychologic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS16 through independent-samples t test, Chi square, and logistic regression.

Results

A total of 139 persons (17.1%) were tobacco smoker and the mean (SD) age at smoking initiation was 13.7 (2.2) years. Sense of need, decreasing stress, having a smoker friend, and inability to reject smoking suggestion were common reasons associated with tobacco smoking (P < 0.05). In addition, statistically significant differences between tobacco smokers and nonsmokers were found in the age, grade, mother's job, and education (P < 0.05). In comparison to non-smokers, tobacco smokers evaluated a typical smoker as less immature, more popular, more attractive, more self-confident, more independent, and less selfish person (P < 0.05).

Background

Tobacco smoking among adolescents has been a concern for researchers and health organizations in recent years. However, predisposing factors to smoking initiation among Iranian adolescents are not well recognized.

Objectives

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and to investigate the role of psychologic, behavioral, and demographic risk factors in adolescents' smoking status.

Adolescent;Risk Factors;Smoking;Students Adolescent;Risk Factors;Smoking;Students http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=27152 Majid Barati Majid Barati Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Alireza Hidarnia Alireza Hidarnia Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2182884555 Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2182884555 Shamsoddin Niknami Shamsoddin Niknami Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Hamid Allahverdipour Hamid Allahverdipour Department of Health Education, School of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Health Education, School of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran