Avicenna Journal of Neuro Psych Physiology Avicenna Journal of Neuro Psych Physiology Avicenna J Neuro Psych Physio http://www.avicennajnpp.com 2383-2436 2383-2444 10.5812/ajnpp. en jalali 2017 6 26 gregorian 2017 6 26 2 2
en 10.17795/ajnpp-28067 Improvement of Motivation and Learning Level in Neuroanatomy Among Hamadan Medical Students Using Human Brain Sections Improvement of Motivation and Learning Level in Neuroanatomy Among Hamadan Medical Students Using Human Brain Sections research-article research-article Conclusions

According to the subjective and objective results, the new method used in anatomy education had a good effect on learning of anatomy and interested students in anatomy. Besides, it decreased students’ stress at exam time. It can be a complementary method for conventional methods. It is very useful for those who need retraining courses.

Results

Using present method had remarkable effect on learning progress and prevention of exhaustion of students in the classroom. Moreover, it increased marvelously their ability in three-dimensional imagination in anatomy. Quantitative analysis of the final examination showed significant increase in the marks of experimental group (P < 0.05).

Materials and Methods

The brains of cadavers in dissection room of medicine faculty of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences were used in the present study. After fixation, the brains cut in three coronal, transverse and sagittal sections. Then, the sections were presented to one group of students in practical classes. Another group continued as control with routine educational method. The students filled out a questionnaire and declared their ideas about the new methods in Neuroanatomy education. Finally, two groups were compared for marks gained in the final exam.

Background

Using new methods in teaching anatomy could have a significant impact on students’ learning.

Objectives

Neuroanatomy is one of the most complicated courses in anatomy. Absence of educational assistance equipment is one the most important problems in this field. Using human brain sections could solve some of the problems and enhance students’ learning.

Conclusions

According to the subjective and objective results, the new method used in anatomy education had a good effect on learning of anatomy and interested students in anatomy. Besides, it decreased students’ stress at exam time. It can be a complementary method for conventional methods. It is very useful for those who need retraining courses.

Results

Using present method had remarkable effect on learning progress and prevention of exhaustion of students in the classroom. Moreover, it increased marvelously their ability in three-dimensional imagination in anatomy. Quantitative analysis of the final examination showed significant increase in the marks of experimental group (P < 0.05).

Materials and Methods

The brains of cadavers in dissection room of medicine faculty of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences were used in the present study. After fixation, the brains cut in three coronal, transverse and sagittal sections. Then, the sections were presented to one group of students in practical classes. Another group continued as control with routine educational method. The students filled out a questionnaire and declared their ideas about the new methods in Neuroanatomy education. Finally, two groups were compared for marks gained in the final exam.

Background

Using new methods in teaching anatomy could have a significant impact on students’ learning.

Objectives

Neuroanatomy is one of the most complicated courses in anatomy. Absence of educational assistance equipment is one the most important problems in this field. Using human brain sections could solve some of the problems and enhance students’ learning.

Education;Brain Sections;Neuroanatomy;Students, Medical Education;Brain Sections;Neuroanatomy;Students, Medical http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=28067 Amaneh Mohammadi Roushandeh Amaneh Mohammadi Roushandeh Department of Anatomy, Medicine Faculty, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Anatomy, Medicine Faculty, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9143078216 Department of Anatomy, Medicine Faculty, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Anatomy, Medicine Faculty, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9143078216 Zohreh Alizadeh Zohreh Alizadeh Department of Anatomy, Medicine Faculty, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Anatomy, Medicine Faculty, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Mohammad Ali Owchi Mohammad Ali Owchi Department of Anatomy, Medicine Faculty, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Anatomy, Medicine Faculty, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Aliehsan Saleh Aliehsan Saleh Hamadan Forensic Medicine Center, Hamadan, IR Iran Hamadan Forensic Medicine Center, Hamadan, IR Iran Yusef Abbasi Yusef Abbasi Department of Anatomy, Medicine Faculty, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Anatomy, Medicine Faculty, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Marziyeh Pooladi Marziyeh Pooladi Department of Anatomy, Medicine Faculty, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Anatomy, Medicine Faculty, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/ajnpp-27838 Murder and Motivation: A Qualitative Study Murder and Motivation: A Qualitative Study research-article research-article Conclusions

It seems that prevention of collective quarrel and control on anger could be helpful to decrease the murder rate in society.

Results

In the end, five main contents were found: collective quarrel, honor killing, emotional dissatisfaction, lack of control on anger, and burglary.

Patients and Methods

It is a qualitative research making use of content analysis, conducting on 17 male imprisoned murderers. Participants were selected through goal based sampling to gain data saturation among prisoners in central prison of Kermanshah. Deep individual and semi-structured interviews were conducted using general questions designed as interview guide. In the meantime, personal satisfaction, information privacy, liberty to leave the study, and moral commitment of the interviews were observed.

Objectives

The present study aimed to determine the reasons and motivations to commit a murder from murderers’ point of view.

Background

Murder is considered as the worst crime in all societies. It might be accomplished suddenly based on previous resolution, effect of stimuli, or due to a mental condition.

Conclusions

It seems that prevention of collective quarrel and control on anger could be helpful to decrease the murder rate in society.

Results

In the end, five main contents were found: collective quarrel, honor killing, emotional dissatisfaction, lack of control on anger, and burglary.

Patients and Methods

It is a qualitative research making use of content analysis, conducting on 17 male imprisoned murderers. Participants were selected through goal based sampling to gain data saturation among prisoners in central prison of Kermanshah. Deep individual and semi-structured interviews were conducted using general questions designed as interview guide. In the meantime, personal satisfaction, information privacy, liberty to leave the study, and moral commitment of the interviews were observed.

Objectives

The present study aimed to determine the reasons and motivations to commit a murder from murderers’ point of view.

Background

Murder is considered as the worst crime in all societies. It might be accomplished suddenly based on previous resolution, effect of stimuli, or due to a mental condition.

Crime;Homicide;Qualitative Research Crime;Homicide;Qualitative Research http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=27838 Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, IR Iran Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, IR Iran Firoozeh Mostafavi Firoozeh Mostafavi Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Mohammad Ahmadpanah Mohammad Ahmadpanah Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Behzad Karami Matin Behzad Karami Matin Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Mohamad Reza Amoei Mohamad Reza Amoei Applied Research Bureau of the Police, Kermanshah, IR Iran Applied Research Bureau of the Police, Kermanshah, IR Iran Farzad Jalilian Farzad Jalilian Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran; Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8337272049 Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran; Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8337272049
en 10.17795/ajnpp-31238 Histamine Potentiates Cyclosomatostatin-Induced Catalepsy in Old Rats Histamine Potentiates Cyclosomatostatin-Induced Catalepsy in Old Rats research-article research-article Conclusions

CycloSOM and histamine synergistically exert catalepsy in old rats. In light of these data, the combination of the decreased brain level of somatostatin and increased brain level of histamine may be of pathogenic relevance for extrapyramidal signs in PD.

Results

CycloSOM (0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 µg) and histamine (1.0 and 10.0 µg) alone were ineffective in both young and old animals. In combination, however, cycloSOM and histamine initiated cataleptic response in old rats. Effect of the combination was inhibited by H1 and H2 but not H3 antagonists.

Materials and Methods

The animals used in the study were 100 - 110 and 736 - 767 days old. Catalepsy was evaluated by the bar test. The inhibition of the brain somatostatin activity was simulated by I.C.V. administration of cyclosomatostatin (cycloSOM), a somatostatin receptor antagonist.

Objectives

The current study aimed to examine if histamine alters the cataleptogenic activity of the brain somatostatin deficiency in Wistar rats.

Background

The decreased level of somatostatin and increased level of histamine are detected in the Parkinsonian brain. In old Wistar rats, the brain somatostatin deficiency can initiate catalepsy that suggests the pathogenic significance of this abnormality in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The ability of histamine to affect the somatostatin deficiency action is not studied.

Conclusions

CycloSOM and histamine synergistically exert catalepsy in old rats. In light of these data, the combination of the decreased brain level of somatostatin and increased brain level of histamine may be of pathogenic relevance for extrapyramidal signs in PD.

Results

CycloSOM (0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 µg) and histamine (1.0 and 10.0 µg) alone were ineffective in both young and old animals. In combination, however, cycloSOM and histamine initiated cataleptic response in old rats. Effect of the combination was inhibited by H1 and H2 but not H3 antagonists.

Materials and Methods

The animals used in the study were 100 - 110 and 736 - 767 days old. Catalepsy was evaluated by the bar test. The inhibition of the brain somatostatin activity was simulated by I.C.V. administration of cyclosomatostatin (cycloSOM), a somatostatin receptor antagonist.

Objectives

The current study aimed to examine if histamine alters the cataleptogenic activity of the brain somatostatin deficiency in Wistar rats.

Background

The decreased level of somatostatin and increased level of histamine are detected in the Parkinsonian brain. In old Wistar rats, the brain somatostatin deficiency can initiate catalepsy that suggests the pathogenic significance of this abnormality in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The ability of histamine to affect the somatostatin deficiency action is not studied.

Histamine;Somatostatin;Aging;Catalepsy;Parkinsonian Disorders Histamine;Somatostatin;Aging;Catalepsy;Parkinsonian Disorders http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=31238 Ilya D. Ionov Ilya D. Ionov Centre on Theoretical Problems in Physical and Chemical Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia; Centre on Theoretical Problems in Physical and Chemical Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box: 117513, Moscow, Russia. Tel: +7-9160734902; Fax: +7-4954383883 Centre on Theoretical Problems in Physical and Chemical Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia; Centre on Theoretical Problems in Physical and Chemical Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box: 117513, Moscow, Russia. Tel: +7-9160734902; Fax: +7-4954383883 Zoya A. Turgeneva Zoya A. Turgeneva Research Group, Timpharm Ltd, Moscow, Russia Research Group, Timpharm Ltd, Moscow, Russia
en 10.17795/ajnpp-31136 Anxiolytic Effect of Ocimum basilicum Extract in Rats Tested by Elevated Plus-Maze Task Anxiolytic Effect of <italic>Ocimum basilicum</italic> Extract in Rats Tested by Elevated Plus-Maze Task research-article research-article Conclusions

Our results demonstrated that the extract of OB could induce anxiolytic effect in rats after 1 week oral administration. The effect of OB was not induced through changes in motor activity. Further investigations are necessary for pharmacological providing of OB and better understanding of its anxiolytic properties and neurobiological mechanisms.

Results

The results showed that after oral feeding of OB, the percentage of open arms entry and open arms time in EPM increased in the experimental groups. OB extract has no effect on the total distance covered by animals and number of closed arm entries.

Materials and Methods

Male Wistar rats weighing 220 - 250 g were used in the present study. Forty rats were divided into 4 groups: three OB groups (25, 50, 100 mg/kg oral administration of OB for 7 days) and a saline control group. One day after the last day of feeding, the animals’ behavior in EPM was videotaped for 10 minutes. Then, their behavior scored for formal indexes of anxiety, such as the total distance covered by animals, the percentage of entries into and the time spent in open and closed arms.

Background

There are reports in traditional medicine about the effectiveness of Ocimum basilicum (OB) in the treatment of anxiety. The Elevated Plus-Maze (EPM) has been predominantly used to investigate anxiety levels in rodents.

Objectives

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of extract of OB on rat behavior in the EPM test.

Conclusions

Our results demonstrated that the extract of OB could induce anxiolytic effect in rats after 1 week oral administration. The effect of OB was not induced through changes in motor activity. Further investigations are necessary for pharmacological providing of OB and better understanding of its anxiolytic properties and neurobiological mechanisms.

Results

The results showed that after oral feeding of OB, the percentage of open arms entry and open arms time in EPM increased in the experimental groups. OB extract has no effect on the total distance covered by animals and number of closed arm entries.

Materials and Methods

Male Wistar rats weighing 220 - 250 g were used in the present study. Forty rats were divided into 4 groups: three OB groups (25, 50, 100 mg/kg oral administration of OB for 7 days) and a saline control group. One day after the last day of feeding, the animals’ behavior in EPM was videotaped for 10 minutes. Then, their behavior scored for formal indexes of anxiety, such as the total distance covered by animals, the percentage of entries into and the time spent in open and closed arms.

Background

There are reports in traditional medicine about the effectiveness of Ocimum basilicum (OB) in the treatment of anxiety. The Elevated Plus-Maze (EPM) has been predominantly used to investigate anxiety levels in rodents.

Objectives

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of extract of OB on rat behavior in the EPM test.

Elevated Plus-Maze;Rat;Anxiety;Ocimum basilicum Elevated Plus-Maze;Rat;Anxiety;Ocimum basilicum http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=31136 Zahra Nemati Zahra Nemati Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Samaneh Oveisi Samaneh Oveisi Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Alireza Komaki Alireza Komaki Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 65178/518, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8138380267, Fax: +98-8138380131 Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 65178/518, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8138380267, Fax: +98-8138380131 Siamak Shahidi Siamak Shahidi Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/ajnpp-32341 Efficacy of Medication and Nonmedication Methods on Working Memory of Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder Efficacy of Medication and Nonmedication Methods on Working Memory of Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder research-article research-article Conclusions

The performance of working memory improved through training, and these trainings extended to other areas of cognition functions not receiving any training. Trainings resulted in the improvement of performance in the tasks related to prefrontal area. They had also a positive and significant impact on the movement activities of hyperactive children.

Results

Training of working memory significantly improved the performance in nontrained areas as visual-spatial working memory as well as the performance in Raven progressive tests which are a perfect example of nonverbal, complicated reasoning tasks.

Patients and Methods

The children participating in this study were 7 - 15 years old, and were diagnosed with ADHD by the psychiatrist and psychologist based on DSM-IV criteria. The intervention group comprised 8 boys and 6 girls with the average age of 11 (± 2) years, and the control group comprised 2 girls and 5 boys with an average age of 11.4 (± 3). Three children in the test group and 2 in the control group were under medicinal therapy.

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of medicinal and behavioral therapies on working memory of children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder.

Background

Working memory is the ability to keep and manipulate information in a short time. Children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are among the people suffering from deficiency in the active memory, and this deficiency has been attributed to the problem of frontal lobe. This study utilized a new approach with suitable tasks and methods for training active memory and assessment of its effects.

Conclusions

The performance of working memory improved through training, and these trainings extended to other areas of cognition functions not receiving any training. Trainings resulted in the improvement of performance in the tasks related to prefrontal area. They had also a positive and significant impact on the movement activities of hyperactive children.

Results

Training of working memory significantly improved the performance in nontrained areas as visual-spatial working memory as well as the performance in Raven progressive tests which are a perfect example of nonverbal, complicated reasoning tasks.

Patients and Methods

The children participating in this study were 7 - 15 years old, and were diagnosed with ADHD by the psychiatrist and psychologist based on DSM-IV criteria. The intervention group comprised 8 boys and 6 girls with the average age of 11 (± 2) years, and the control group comprised 2 girls and 5 boys with an average age of 11.4 (± 3). Three children in the test group and 2 in the control group were under medicinal therapy.

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of medicinal and behavioral therapies on working memory of children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder.

Background

Working memory is the ability to keep and manipulate information in a short time. Children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are among the people suffering from deficiency in the active memory, and this deficiency has been attributed to the problem of frontal lobe. This study utilized a new approach with suitable tasks and methods for training active memory and assessment of its effects.

Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder;Memory in Children;Drug Therapy Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder;Memory in Children;Drug Therapy http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=32341 Mohammad Ahmadpanah Mohammad Ahmadpanah Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Mohammad Haghighi Mohammad Haghighi Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Ali Ghaleiha Ali Ghaleiha Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Leila Jahangard Leila Jahangard Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Marzieh Nazaribadie Marzieh Nazaribadie Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Amineh Akhondi Amineh Akhondi Hamadan Educational Organization, Ministry of Education, Hamadan, IR Iran; Hamadan Educational Organization, Ministry of Education, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-8138271066 Hamadan Educational Organization, Ministry of Education, Hamadan, IR Iran; Hamadan Educational Organization, Ministry of Education, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-8138271066
en 10.17795/ajnpp-33950 Comparing Mental Health of School-Age Children of Parents With/Without Bipolar Disorders: A Case Control Study Comparing Mental Health of School-Age Children of Parents With/Without Bipolar Disorders: A Case Control Study research-article research-article Conclusions

These findings support that the careful evaluation and prospective following of the psychopathology of children of parents with bipolar disorder are critical for early identification and treatment.

Results

There were statistically significant differences between children of parents with and those without bipolar disorder regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct, generalized anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, major depression, separation anxiety (P< 0.001) and social phobia (P < 0.05). Children of parents with BP are at high risk for psychiatric disorders.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to compare the mental health of school-age children of parents, with/without bipolar disorder.

Materials and Methods

This case-control study included one hundred children aged six to twelve years, who had parents with bipolar disorder and 200 children of 163 demographically-matched control parents. Parents with bipolar disorder were recruited from Farshchian Psychiatric Hospital of Hamadan, Iran, during year 2014. The parent version of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 questionnaire was used to measure mental health. Mean comparisons were performed using Student’s t test while effect sizes were estimated by Cohen’s d coefficient. The Chi-square test was used to assess significant differences between frequency distribution of demographic variables in both groups. The significance level was considered less than 0.05.

Background

Children of parents with bipolar disorder appear to have an increased risk of early-onset Bipolar Disorder (BP), mood disorders and other psychiatric disorders.

Conclusions

These findings support that the careful evaluation and prospective following of the psychopathology of children of parents with bipolar disorder are critical for early identification and treatment.

Results

There were statistically significant differences between children of parents with and those without bipolar disorder regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct, generalized anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, major depression, separation anxiety (P< 0.001) and social phobia (P < 0.05). Children of parents with BP are at high risk for psychiatric disorders.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to compare the mental health of school-age children of parents, with/without bipolar disorder.

Materials and Methods

This case-control study included one hundred children aged six to twelve years, who had parents with bipolar disorder and 200 children of 163 demographically-matched control parents. Parents with bipolar disorder were recruited from Farshchian Psychiatric Hospital of Hamadan, Iran, during year 2014. The parent version of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 questionnaire was used to measure mental health. Mean comparisons were performed using Student’s t test while effect sizes were estimated by Cohen’s d coefficient. The Chi-square test was used to assess significant differences between frequency distribution of demographic variables in both groups. The significance level was considered less than 0.05.

Background

Children of parents with bipolar disorder appear to have an increased risk of early-onset Bipolar Disorder (BP), mood disorders and other psychiatric disorders.

Mental Health;Bipolar Disorder;School-Age;Children Mental Health;Bipolar Disorder;School-Age;Children http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=33950 Farshid Shamsaei Farshid Shamsaei Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Fatemeh Cheraghi Fatemeh Cheraghi Chronic Diseases (Home Care) Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Chronic Diseases (Home Care) Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Shahid Fahmide Bulv, P. O. Box: 65178, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8138232193, Fax: +98-8138380447 Chronic Diseases (Home Care) Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Chronic Diseases (Home Care) Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Shahid Fahmide Bulv, P. O. Box: 65178, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8138232193, Fax: +98-8138380447 Maryam Dehghani Maryam Dehghani Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Leyla Jahangard Leyla Jahangard Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran