Avicenna Journal of Neuro Psych Physiology Avicenna Journal of Neuro Psych Physiology Avicenna J Neuro Psych Physio http://www.avicennajnpp.com 2383-2436 2383-2444 10.5812/ajnpp. en jalali 2017 6 25 gregorian 2017 6 25 2 3
en 10.17795/ajnpp-34150 Effects of Acute Administration of Urtica dioica on the Novel Object-Recognition Task in Mice Effects of Acute Administration of Urtica dioica on the Novel Object-Recognition Task in Mice research-article research-article Conclusions

Acute administration of U. dioica impairs the object-recognition task if it is used only before the training session. This may be due to its modulation on the acquisition processing of object-recognition. U. dioica has no significant effects on the consolidation or retrieval processing stages of the NOR task. These results emphasize the unfavorable effect on cognitive function of pre-training with acute supplementation of U. dioica.

Results

The results showed that there was a preference for the novel object compared to the familiar one in each of the experimental groups. The object-recognition discrimination index in the group of mice that received U. dioica before training was significantly less than in the other experimental groups. There was no significant difference in the discrimination index between the other groups. U. dioica did not decrease the time spent exploring familiar and unfamiliar objects, or the total time spent exploring both objects.

Materials and Methods

First, U. dioica aqueous extract was prepared, then adult male mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups. During the training session, the mice were placed in a box and given 5 minutes to explore two identical objects. The next day, they were again placed in the box and allowed to explore one familiar and one novel object. They received intraperitoneal injections of saline or U. dioica aqueous extract (100 mg/kg) before or immediately after the training session or before the test session of the NOR task.

Background

Urtica dioica (nettle) has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for the treatment of certain urogenital problems, gastrointestinal disorders, and diabetes.

Objectives

Recent studies have implicated the effect of U. dioica on brain functions such as pain and memory. However, there is no direct evidence of the acute effects of this plant on cognition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of U. dioica aqueous extract on the novel object-recognition task (NOR) in mice.

Conclusions

Acute administration of U. dioica impairs the object-recognition task if it is used only before the training session. This may be due to its modulation on the acquisition processing of object-recognition. U. dioica has no significant effects on the consolidation or retrieval processing stages of the NOR task. These results emphasize the unfavorable effect on cognitive function of pre-training with acute supplementation of U. dioica.

Results

The results showed that there was a preference for the novel object compared to the familiar one in each of the experimental groups. The object-recognition discrimination index in the group of mice that received U. dioica before training was significantly less than in the other experimental groups. There was no significant difference in the discrimination index between the other groups. U. dioica did not decrease the time spent exploring familiar and unfamiliar objects, or the total time spent exploring both objects.

Materials and Methods

First, U. dioica aqueous extract was prepared, then adult male mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups. During the training session, the mice were placed in a box and given 5 minutes to explore two identical objects. The next day, they were again placed in the box and allowed to explore one familiar and one novel object. They received intraperitoneal injections of saline or U. dioica aqueous extract (100 mg/kg) before or immediately after the training session or before the test session of the NOR task.

Background

Urtica dioica (nettle) has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for the treatment of certain urogenital problems, gastrointestinal disorders, and diabetes.

Objectives

Recent studies have implicated the effect of U. dioica on brain functions such as pain and memory. However, there is no direct evidence of the acute effects of this plant on cognition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of U. dioica aqueous extract on the novel object-recognition task (NOR) in mice.

Mice;Novel Object Recognition;Urtica dioica Mice;Novel Object Recognition;Urtica dioica http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=34150 Nasrin Hashemi-Firouzi Nasrin Hashemi-Firouzi Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Marjan Akhavan Marjan Akhavan Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Alireza Komaki Alireza Komaki Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Siamak Shahidi Siamak Shahidi Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8138380462, Fax: +98-8138380208 Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8138380462, Fax: +98-8138380208
en 10.17795/ajnpp-35345 Neuropsychological Manifestation in Ebola: A Concern Neuropsychological Manifestation in Ebola: A Concern letter letter Neuropsychological;Manifestation;Ebola Neuropsychological;Manifestation;Ebola http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=35345 Sim Sai Tin Sim Sai Tin Shantou Medical Center, Shantou, China; Shantou Medical Center, Shantou, China. Tel: +86-2046866284, Fax: +86-2046866284 Shantou Medical Center, Shantou, China; Shantou Medical Center, Shantou, China. Tel: +86-2046866284, Fax: +86-2046866284 Viroj Wiwanitkit Viroj Wiwanitkit Tropical Medicine Unit, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China Tropical Medicine Unit, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China
en 10.17795/ajnpp-34659 Spelling Errors Made By Persian Children With Developmental Dyslexia Spelling Errors Made By Persian Children With Developmental Dyslexia research-article research-article Conclusions

However, performances of dyslexic group and reading level matched group were different and inconsistent in some cases.

Results

This study found similar spelling error profiles among the dyslexic students and the reading-level-matched group, and these profiles were different from those of the age-matched group. However, the performances of the dyslexic group and the reading-level-matched group were different and inconsistent in some cases.

Objectives

The study was intended to investigate spelling error patterns among Persian children with developmental dyslexia and compare those patterns with the errors exhibited by control groups.

Patients and Methods

Some 90 students participated in this study. There were 30 fifth grade students who had been diagnosed as dyslexic by professionals, 30 normal fifth grade readers, and 30 younger normal readers. There were 15 boys and 15 girls in each of the groups. Qualitative and quantitative methods for the analysis of errors were used.

Background

According to recent estimates, approximately 4% - 12% of Iranians experience difficulty in learning to read and spell, possibly as a result of developmental dyslexia.

Conclusions

However, performances of dyslexic group and reading level matched group were different and inconsistent in some cases.

Results

This study found similar spelling error profiles among the dyslexic students and the reading-level-matched group, and these profiles were different from those of the age-matched group. However, the performances of the dyslexic group and the reading-level-matched group were different and inconsistent in some cases.

Objectives

The study was intended to investigate spelling error patterns among Persian children with developmental dyslexia and compare those patterns with the errors exhibited by control groups.

Patients and Methods

Some 90 students participated in this study. There were 30 fifth grade students who had been diagnosed as dyslexic by professionals, 30 normal fifth grade readers, and 30 younger normal readers. There were 15 boys and 15 girls in each of the groups. Qualitative and quantitative methods for the analysis of errors were used.

Background

According to recent estimates, approximately 4% - 12% of Iranians experience difficulty in learning to read and spell, possibly as a result of developmental dyslexia.

Spelling;Errors;Developmental Dyslexia;Persian Spelling;Errors;Developmental Dyslexia;Persian http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=34659 Mohammad Ahmadpanah Mohammad Ahmadpanah Behavioral Disorder and Substance Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Behavioral Disorder and Substance Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Mohammad Haghighi Mohammad Haghighi Behavioral Disorder and Substance Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Behavioral Disorder and Substance Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Prakash Padakannaya Prakash Padakannaya Department of Studies in Psychology, University of Mysore, Mysore, Karnataka, India Department of Studies in Psychology, University of Mysore, Mysore, Karnataka, India Ali Ghaleiha Ali Ghaleiha Behavioral Disorder and Substance Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Behavioral Disorder and Substance Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Leila Jahangard Leila Jahangard Behavioral Disorder and Substance Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Behavioral Disorder and Substance Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Marzieh Nazaribadie Marzieh Nazaribadie Behavioral Disorder and Substance Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Behavioral Disorder and Substance Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Amineh Akhondi Amineh Akhondi Hamadan Educational Organization, Hamadan, IR Iran; Hamadan Educational Organization, Hamadan, IR Iran Hamadan Educational Organization, Hamadan, IR Iran; Hamadan Educational Organization, Hamadan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/ajnpp-35266 Classification of Mental Disorders Based on Temperament Classification of Mental Disorders Based on Temperament review-article review-article Conclusions

Temperaments can provide a basis to classify psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric disorders can be placed in a spectrum based on temperaments.

Results

Four groups of temperaments were identified: high active, high flexible; high active, low flexible; low active, low flexible; and low active, high flexible. When temperament deteriorates personality, non-psychotic, and psychotic psychiatric disorders can develop.

Evidence Acquisition

This basic study examined ancient medical books. “The Canon” by Avicenna and “Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry” by Kaplan and Sadock were the most important and frequently consulted books in this study.

Context

Different paradoxical theories are available regarding psychiatric disorders. The current study aimed to establish a more comprehensive overall approach.

Conclusions

Temperaments can provide a basis to classify psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric disorders can be placed in a spectrum based on temperaments.

Results

Four groups of temperaments were identified: high active, high flexible; high active, low flexible; low active, low flexible; and low active, high flexible. When temperament deteriorates personality, non-psychotic, and psychotic psychiatric disorders can develop.

Evidence Acquisition

This basic study examined ancient medical books. “The Canon” by Avicenna and “Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry” by Kaplan and Sadock were the most important and frequently consulted books in this study.

Context

Different paradoxical theories are available regarding psychiatric disorders. The current study aimed to establish a more comprehensive overall approach.

Temperament;Mental Disorder;Classification Temperament;Mental Disorder;Classification http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=35266 Mohammad Nadi Sakhvidi Mohammad Nadi Sakhvidi Department of Psychiatry, Shahid-Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran Department of Psychiatry, Shahid-Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran Lida Jafari Lida Jafari Clinical Psychology Department, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, IR Iran Clinical Psychology Department, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, IR Iran Fatemeh Hosseini Fatemeh Hosseini Department of Psychiatry, Shahid-Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran; Department of Psychiatry, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran. Tel: +98-353183368 Department of Psychiatry, Shahid-Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran; Department of Psychiatry, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran. Tel: +98-353183368
en 10.17795/ajnpp-35180 The Relationship Between Brain-Behavioral Systems and Negative and Positive Affect in Patients With Migraine The Relationship Between Brain-Behavioral Systems and Negative and Positive Affect in Patients With Migraine research-article research-article Conclusions

It can be concluded that brain-behavioral systems may be the foundation of behavioral and emotional tendencies in patients with migraine headaches.

Results

The results showed that positive affect had a significant positive correlation with active avoidance parameters and negative significant correlation with passive avoidance and extinction parameters. The findings also indicated that negative affect had a positive and significant relationship with passive avoidance and extinction.

Patients and Methods

The research population included patients, who had referred to neurology clinics. One hundred and twenty cases were selected by accessible sampling based on the neurologist’s diagnosis of migraine headaches. They completed the Gray-Wilson (1989) Personality Questionnaire as well as Watson, Clark and Telligent (1988) positive and negative affect scale. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 19 software, correlation and stepwise regression.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain-behavioral systems and negative and positive affects in patients with migraine.

Background

Migraine is a chronic headache disorder that affects approximately 12% of the general population. Migraine is known as recurrent headache, pulsating, moderate with severe power, which lasts for 4 to 72 hours, aggravated by daily physical activity along with nausea, vomiting, photophobia or photophobia.

Conclusions

It can be concluded that brain-behavioral systems may be the foundation of behavioral and emotional tendencies in patients with migraine headaches.

Results

The results showed that positive affect had a significant positive correlation with active avoidance parameters and negative significant correlation with passive avoidance and extinction parameters. The findings also indicated that negative affect had a positive and significant relationship with passive avoidance and extinction.

Patients and Methods

The research population included patients, who had referred to neurology clinics. One hundred and twenty cases were selected by accessible sampling based on the neurologist’s diagnosis of migraine headaches. They completed the Gray-Wilson (1989) Personality Questionnaire as well as Watson, Clark and Telligent (1988) positive and negative affect scale. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 19 software, correlation and stepwise regression.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain-behavioral systems and negative and positive affects in patients with migraine.

Background

Migraine is a chronic headache disorder that affects approximately 12% of the general population. Migraine is known as recurrent headache, pulsating, moderate with severe power, which lasts for 4 to 72 hours, aggravated by daily physical activity along with nausea, vomiting, photophobia or photophobia.

Migraine;Brain-Behavioral Systems;Negative and Positive Affect Migraine;Brain-Behavioral Systems;Negative and Positive Affect http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=35180 Reza Jovharifard Reza Jovharifard Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch, Ahvaz, IR Iran Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch, Ahvaz, IR Iran Atefeh Bashirinejhadian Atefeh Bashirinejhadian M. Sc of Clinical Psychology, Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, IR Iran M. Sc of Clinical Psychology, Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, IR Iran Mohammad Babamiri Mohammad Babamiri Social Determinants of Health Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Ergonomics, Health Faculty, Hamadan University of Medical Science, Hamadan, IR Iran Social Determinants of Health Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Ergonomics, Health Faculty, Hamadan University of Medical Science, Hamadan, IR Iran Azita Zahiri Harsini Azita Zahiri Harsini Ph.D Student of Health Education and Promotion, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Ph.D Student of Health Education and Promotion, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Majid Barati Majid Barati Social Determinants of Health Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Social Determinants of Health Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/ajnpp-34440 The Effect of Different Training Modes on Serum Apelin and Pain Threshold in Morphine-Dependent Rats The Effect of Different Training Modes on Serum Apelin and Pain Threshold in Morphine-Dependent Rats research-article research-article Conclusions

The results showed that endurance training reduced pain by increasing apelin in morphine-dependent rats. Therefore, it is suggested that this type of training be considered for the morphine-dependent patients for pain relief.

Objectives

Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate apelin and pain threshold changes in healthy and morphine-dependent rats in response to two exercise paradigms.

Materials and Methods

In this study, 30 healthy and 30 morphine-dependent rats were used. Morphine-dependent and healthy rats were divided into six groups: 1, a control (healthy) group; 2, a healthy endurance group; 3, a healthy strength-training group; 4, an addicted control group; 5, an addicted endurance group; 6, an addicted strength-training group. Then, the training groups performed aerobic and strength training for eight weeks. After the training program, the tail flick and formalin tests were used to assess pain. Apelin was also measured by ELISA.

Results

Regardless of the type of exercise, exercise significantly increased the apelin serum levels in healthy rats. The apelin levels significantly increased in the morphine-dependent rats compared with the healthy control group. Endurance, unlike strength training, significantly increased apelin in the serum compared to the addicted control group. The training led to pain relief in the morphine-dependent rats and returned it to the healthy control group level. The Pearson correlation showed a reverse significant correlation between the serum apelin level and the tail flick test in the morphine-dependent rats.

Background

Apelin has recently been identified as an analgesic agent and a novel neuropeptide. On the other hand, it has been shown that exercise can lead to reduced pain in morphine-dependent patients.

Conclusions

The results showed that endurance training reduced pain by increasing apelin in morphine-dependent rats. Therefore, it is suggested that this type of training be considered for the morphine-dependent patients for pain relief.

Objectives

Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate apelin and pain threshold changes in healthy and morphine-dependent rats in response to two exercise paradigms.

Materials and Methods

In this study, 30 healthy and 30 morphine-dependent rats were used. Morphine-dependent and healthy rats were divided into six groups: 1, a control (healthy) group; 2, a healthy endurance group; 3, a healthy strength-training group; 4, an addicted control group; 5, an addicted endurance group; 6, an addicted strength-training group. Then, the training groups performed aerobic and strength training for eight weeks. After the training program, the tail flick and formalin tests were used to assess pain. Apelin was also measured by ELISA.

Results

Regardless of the type of exercise, exercise significantly increased the apelin serum levels in healthy rats. The apelin levels significantly increased in the morphine-dependent rats compared with the healthy control group. Endurance, unlike strength training, significantly increased apelin in the serum compared to the addicted control group. The training led to pain relief in the morphine-dependent rats and returned it to the healthy control group level. The Pearson correlation showed a reverse significant correlation between the serum apelin level and the tail flick test in the morphine-dependent rats.

Background

Apelin has recently been identified as an analgesic agent and a novel neuropeptide. On the other hand, it has been shown that exercise can lead to reduced pain in morphine-dependent patients.

Exercise Training;Analgesics;Pain Threshold;Morphine;Apelin Exercise Training;Analgesics;Pain Threshold;Morphine;Apelin http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=34440 Ebrahim Zarrinkalam Ebrahim Zarrinkalam Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamadan, IR Iran Ali Heidarianpour Ali Heidarianpour Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9188187984 Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9188187984