Avicenna Journal of Neuro Psych Physiology Avicenna Journal of Neuro Psych Physiology Avicenna J Neuro Psych Physio http://www.avicennajnpp.com 2383-2436 2383-2444 10.5812/ajnpp. en jalali 2017 6 26 gregorian 2017 6 26 2 4
en 10.17795/ajnpp-37730 Child-Parent Relationships and Parents’ Preventive Behaviors Affecting the Onset of Substance Use in Children: My Family Study Child-Parent Relationships and Parents’ Preventive Behaviors Affecting the Onset of Substance Use in Children: My Family Study research-article research-article Conclusions

The findings suggest that the development of preventive programs will contribute to increases in the child-mother closeness relationship and will help to prevent the onset of substance use in children.

Background

Considering the fundamental role that parents play in a family dynamic, it is important to explore the parent-child relationship and examine what protective behaviors or risk factors may contribute to the onset of substance use in children.

Objectives

The present study aims to investigate the correlation between child-parent relationships and parents’ preventive behaviors and their effect on the onset of substance use in children.

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2014 among 234 randomly selected volunteer participants. These participants, who were all Tehran-based Iranian mothers, filled out a self-administered questionnaire in which they recorded: I-demographic information, II of family-based behaviors aimed at preventing the onset of substance use in children, and III of the child-parent relationship. Data were analyzed via SPSS software (ver. 21.0) using Pearson correlations, independent t-tests, and ANOVA at a 95% significant level.

Results

Results reported a negative significant correlation between conflict and closeness (r = -0.465, P ≥ 0.001), a positive significant correlation between closeness and preventive behaviors (r = 0.852, P ≥ 0.001), and a negative significant correlation between conflict and preventive behaviors (r = -0.605, P ≥ 0.001).

Conclusions

The findings suggest that the development of preventive programs will contribute to increases in the child-mother closeness relationship and will help to prevent the onset of substance use in children.

Background

Considering the fundamental role that parents play in a family dynamic, it is important to explore the parent-child relationship and examine what protective behaviors or risk factors may contribute to the onset of substance use in children.

Objectives

The present study aims to investigate the correlation between child-parent relationships and parents’ preventive behaviors and their effect on the onset of substance use in children.

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2014 among 234 randomly selected volunteer participants. These participants, who were all Tehran-based Iranian mothers, filled out a self-administered questionnaire in which they recorded: I-demographic information, II of family-based behaviors aimed at preventing the onset of substance use in children, and III of the child-parent relationship. Data were analyzed via SPSS software (ver. 21.0) using Pearson correlations, independent t-tests, and ANOVA at a 95% significant level.

Results

Results reported a negative significant correlation between conflict and closeness (r = -0.465, P ≥ 0.001), a positive significant correlation between closeness and preventive behaviors (r = 0.852, P ≥ 0.001), and a negative significant correlation between conflict and preventive behaviors (r = -0.605, P ≥ 0.001).

Family;Cognitive Factors;Conflict;Closeness Family;Cognitive Factors;Conflict;Closeness http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=37730 Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Alireza Hidarnia Alireza Hidarnia Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2144203074, Fax: +98-88013030 Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2144203074, Fax: +98-88013030 Gerjo Kok Gerjo Kok Department of Work and Social Psychology, School of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands Department of Work and Social Psychology, School of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands Shamsaddin Niknami Shamsaddin Niknami Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Ismail Motlagh Mohammad Ismail Motlagh Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Mahnaz Pishdar Mahnaz Pishdar Institute of Mehrvarzan-Pishgiri, Tehran, IR Iran Institute of Mehrvarzan-Pishgiri, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.17795/ajnpp-36144 The Effect of Matrix Method on Anxiety and Attitude Toward Methamphetamine and Crack Abuse in Males Referring to Addiction Treatment Centers in Tonkabon, Iran The Effect of Matrix Method on Anxiety and Attitude Toward Methamphetamine and Crack Abuse in Males Referring to Addiction Treatment Centers in Tonkabon, Iran research-article research-article Results

The single covariance analysis of ANCOVA indicated that the value of Eta about 72% of variance of anxiety variable and about 76% of variance of drug abuse variable are taken in to account for variable of group. The intervention was effective in reducing anxiety and attitude to crack in males. Evaluating the adjusted mean showed the effectiveness of matrix method on anxiety and attitude to crack abuse in males.

Background

Drug abuse is a major problem in the communities and has many harmful effects on human body.

Objectives

The current study aimed to compare the efficacy of matrix method on anxiety and attitude of male crack abusers referred to addiction treatment centers in Tonkabon, Iran, in 2014.

Patients and Methods

The current semi -experimental study included 1,000 males referred to addiction treatment centers in Tonkabon with crack abuse history in 2014. Based on Morgan sample volume formula, 278 males with anxiety and higher attitude to drug abuse were randomly selected from 1,000 males referred to addiction treatment centers in Tonkabon. Then, 30 subjects were reselected out of them and equally assigned into two groups of experimental and control, 15 subjects in each group. The experimental group received 24 sessions of 30 - 60 minutes matrix treatment method in group, but the control group received no training. At the end of training period the post-test was carried out. The research findings confirmed the efficacy of matrix method on anxiety and attitude to crack abuse among those referring to the addition treatment center.

Conclusions

The research result showed that matrix method affected the reduction of methamphetamine and attitude to crack abuse in males referred to the addition treatment center.

Results

The single covariance analysis of ANCOVA indicated that the value of Eta about 72% of variance of anxiety variable and about 76% of variance of drug abuse variable are taken in to account for variable of group. The intervention was effective in reducing anxiety and attitude to crack in males. Evaluating the adjusted mean showed the effectiveness of matrix method on anxiety and attitude to crack abuse in males.

Background

Drug abuse is a major problem in the communities and has many harmful effects on human body.

Objectives

The current study aimed to compare the efficacy of matrix method on anxiety and attitude of male crack abusers referred to addiction treatment centers in Tonkabon, Iran, in 2014.

Patients and Methods

The current semi -experimental study included 1,000 males referred to addiction treatment centers in Tonkabon with crack abuse history in 2014. Based on Morgan sample volume formula, 278 males with anxiety and higher attitude to drug abuse were randomly selected from 1,000 males referred to addiction treatment centers in Tonkabon. Then, 30 subjects were reselected out of them and equally assigned into two groups of experimental and control, 15 subjects in each group. The experimental group received 24 sessions of 30 - 60 minutes matrix treatment method in group, but the control group received no training. At the end of training period the post-test was carried out. The research findings confirmed the efficacy of matrix method on anxiety and attitude to crack abuse among those referring to the addition treatment center.

Conclusions

The research result showed that matrix method affected the reduction of methamphetamine and attitude to crack abuse in males referred to the addition treatment center.

Matrix Method;Anxiety;Attitude Toward Crack Abuse;Methamphetamine Matrix Method;Anxiety;Attitude Toward Crack Abuse;Methamphetamine http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=36144 Akbar Hemmati Sabet Akbar Hemmati Sabet Department of Counseling, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Counseling, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Masoome Hemmati Masoome Hemmati Department of Counseling, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Counseling, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Mahsa Poustchi Mahsa Poustchi Department of Exceptional Children, Allameh University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Exceptional Children, Allameh University, Tehran, IR Iran Mehran Nejad Hashem Mehran Nejad Hashem Department of General Psychology, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, IR Iran Department of General Psychology, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, IR Iran Mohammad Haghighi Mohammad Haghighi Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuses Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuses Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Mohammad Ahmadpanah Mohammad Ahmadpanah Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuses Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuses Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8138380292 Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuses Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuses Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8138380292
en 10.17795/ajnpp-36586 Acute/Chronic Pain Relief: Is Althaea officinalis Essential Oil Effective? Acute/Chronic Pain Relief: Is <italic>Althaea officinalis</italic> Essential Oil Effective? research-article research-article Conclusions

EOAO showed an analgesic effect that may involve both the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Background

The Althaea officinalis (marshmallow) plant is traditionally used to treat skin burns and constipation and to reduce inflammation.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute and chronic analgesic effects of the essential oil of Althaea officinalis leaves (EOAO) in adult male mice.

Materials and Methods

This experimental study used thirty-six adult male mice, which were randomly divided into six groups: a control, three groups treated with EOAO (18, 38, or 80 mg/kg, i.p.), a morphine group (1 mg/kg, i.p.), and a group treated with a combination of naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p.) and 80 mg/kg EOAO. The analgesic effects of EOAO were evaluated by writhing, tail-flick, and formalin tests. The essential oil of the plant was prepared by the steady distillation method and its composition was analyzed by GC/MS.

Results

Significant antinociceptive effects were noted with doses of 38 and 80 mg/kg EOAO in the chronic phase response of the formalin test (P < 0.05 versus control). Doses of 38 and 80 mg/kg EOAO had a significant analgesic effect in the writhing test (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively, versus control). The 80 mg/kg dose of EOAO caused an enhancement in reaction time in the tail-flick test (P < 0.01 versus control).

Conclusions

EOAO showed an analgesic effect that may involve both the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Background

The Althaea officinalis (marshmallow) plant is traditionally used to treat skin burns and constipation and to reduce inflammation.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute and chronic analgesic effects of the essential oil of Althaea officinalis leaves (EOAO) in adult male mice.

Materials and Methods

This experimental study used thirty-six adult male mice, which were randomly divided into six groups: a control, three groups treated with EOAO (18, 38, or 80 mg/kg, i.p.), a morphine group (1 mg/kg, i.p.), and a group treated with a combination of naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p.) and 80 mg/kg EOAO. The analgesic effects of EOAO were evaluated by writhing, tail-flick, and formalin tests. The essential oil of the plant was prepared by the steady distillation method and its composition was analyzed by GC/MS.

Results

Significant antinociceptive effects were noted with doses of 38 and 80 mg/kg EOAO in the chronic phase response of the formalin test (P < 0.05 versus control). Doses of 38 and 80 mg/kg EOAO had a significant analgesic effect in the writhing test (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively, versus control). The 80 mg/kg dose of EOAO caused an enhancement in reaction time in the tail-flick test (P < 0.01 versus control).

Medicinal Herb;Pain;Essential Oil;Mouse;Althaea officinalis Medicinal Herb;Pain;Essential Oil;Mouse;Althaea officinalis http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=36586 Yosef Golshani Yosef Golshani Department of Biology, Payam-Noor University, Hamadan Branch, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Biology, Payam-Noor University, Hamadan Branch, Hamadan, IR Iran Mohammad Zarei Mohammad Zarei Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8138380462, Fax: +98-8138380464 Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran; Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8138380462, Fax: +98-8138380464 Saeed Mohammadi Saeed Mohammadi Department of Biology, Hamadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Biology, Hamadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9187134858, Fax: +98-8138380464 Department of Biology, Hamadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Biology, Hamadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9187134858, Fax: +98-8138380464
en 10.17795/ajnpp-36924 Effect of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles on Atropine-Induced Memory Impairment in Adult Male Mice Effect of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles on Atropine-Induced Memory Impairment in Adult Male Mice research-article research-article Materials and Methods

In this experimental study, NMRI male mice were placed in groups receiving atropine (0.1 and 1 mg/kg), recipient of MgO-n (1, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg) and groups receiving atropine in effective dose and different doses of MgO-n were used. Saline was used as a vehicle for drugs in the control groups. Memory was evaluated with a step-down apparatus to determine the coming down latency from a safe platform on days 1, 3, and 7 after training. Locomotor activity was also evaluated through an open field test in all groups after memory measurements.

Results

The results showed that atropine (1 mg/kg) decreased the latency time of coming down from the podium and induced memory deficits (P < 0.01). MgO-n in doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg caused a significant increase in latency time of coming down from the podium over one week (P < 0.001). MgO-n was able to reverse memory impairments resulting from atropine (1 mg/kg) (P < 0.001). Locomotor activity did not change in any of the groups.

Conclusions

It seems that the potentiating effect of MgO-n on memory is due to interference with the cholinergic pathway.

Background

Previous studies have shown that magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO-n) improve passive avoidance memory in adult male mice. Alternatively, muscarinic receptors of the cholinergic system have a primary role in memory formation but their relationship with the improvement effects of magnesium on memory is not clear.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nano magnesium oxide on memory deficits induced by atropine as a muscarinic receptor antagonist in passive avoidance memory tests.

Materials and Methods

In this experimental study, NMRI male mice were placed in groups receiving atropine (0.1 and 1 mg/kg), recipient of MgO-n (1, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg) and groups receiving atropine in effective dose and different doses of MgO-n were used. Saline was used as a vehicle for drugs in the control groups. Memory was evaluated with a step-down apparatus to determine the coming down latency from a safe platform on days 1, 3, and 7 after training. Locomotor activity was also evaluated through an open field test in all groups after memory measurements.

Results

The results showed that atropine (1 mg/kg) decreased the latency time of coming down from the podium and induced memory deficits (P < 0.01). MgO-n in doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg caused a significant increase in latency time of coming down from the podium over one week (P < 0.001). MgO-n was able to reverse memory impairments resulting from atropine (1 mg/kg) (P < 0.001). Locomotor activity did not change in any of the groups.

Conclusions

It seems that the potentiating effect of MgO-n on memory is due to interference with the cholinergic pathway.

Background

Previous studies have shown that magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO-n) improve passive avoidance memory in adult male mice. Alternatively, muscarinic receptors of the cholinergic system have a primary role in memory formation but their relationship with the improvement effects of magnesium on memory is not clear.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nano magnesium oxide on memory deficits induced by atropine as a muscarinic receptor antagonist in passive avoidance memory tests.

Atropine;Magnesium;Memory;Nanoparticles Atropine;Magnesium;Memory;Nanoparticles http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=36924 Zeinab Sargholi Nootarki Zeinab Sargholi Nootarki Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, IR Iran Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, IR Iran Mahnaz Kesmati Mahnaz Kesmati Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, IR Iran; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9166126897 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, IR Iran; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9166126897 Mahdi Poormehdi Borujeni Mahdi Poormehdi Borujeni Department of Food Hygiene, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, IR Iran Department of Food Hygiene, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, IR Iran
en 10.17795/ajnpp-37281 Issues in Estimating Rates of Pediatric Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis in a Community-Based Sample Issues in Estimating Rates of Pediatric Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis in a Community-Based Sample research-article research-article Conclusions

Our methods will allow us to determine the prevalence of pediatric CFS and ME status in the general community.

Results

We provide two case studies showing the types of data we are collecting, and how the data are being used to inform diagnostic decisions.

Objectives

In the present study, we describe an ongoing NIH-funded study which will answer basic epidemiologic pediatric issues for pediatric CFS and ME.

Materials and Methods

We used a multiple-stage design, beginning with a brief screening for CFS- and ME-like symptomatology, followed by a more rigorous medical and psychiatric diagnostic evaluation.

Background

There is a need to examine the prevalence of pediatric chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) in the general community, as well as the relative frequency of CFS and ME among various groups (e.g., different age groups, genders, racial/ethnic groups, and socioeconomic strata) and to compare these individuals with community controls.

Conclusions

Our methods will allow us to determine the prevalence of pediatric CFS and ME status in the general community.

Results

We provide two case studies showing the types of data we are collecting, and how the data are being used to inform diagnostic decisions.

Objectives

In the present study, we describe an ongoing NIH-funded study which will answer basic epidemiologic pediatric issues for pediatric CFS and ME.

Materials and Methods

We used a multiple-stage design, beginning with a brief screening for CFS- and ME-like symptomatology, followed by a more rigorous medical and psychiatric diagnostic evaluation.

Background

There is a need to examine the prevalence of pediatric chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) in the general community, as well as the relative frequency of CFS and ME among various groups (e.g., different age groups, genders, racial/ethnic groups, and socioeconomic strata) and to compare these individuals with community controls.

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis;Chronic Fatigue Syndrome;Epidemiology;Case Definition Myalgic Encephalomyelitis;Chronic Fatigue Syndrome;Epidemiology;Case Definition http://www.avicennajnpp.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=37281 Leonard A. Jason Leonard A. Jason Center for Community Research, DePaul University, Chicago, United States; Center for Community Research, DePaul University, 990 W. Fullerton Ave., Chicago, IL 60614, United States. Tel: +1-7733252018, Fax: +1-7733254923 Center for Community Research, DePaul University, Chicago, United States; Center for Community Research, DePaul University, 990 W. Fullerton Ave., Chicago, IL 60614, United States. Tel: +1-7733252018, Fax: +1-7733254923 Ben Z. Katz Ben Z. Katz Northwestern University, Evanston, United States Northwestern University, Evanston, United States Cynthia Mears Cynthia Mears Advocate Health Care, Chicago, United States Advocate Health Care, Chicago, United States Rachel Jantke Rachel Jantke Center for Community Research, DePaul University, Chicago, United States Center for Community Research, DePaul University, Chicago, United States Abigail Brown Abigail Brown Center for Community Research, DePaul University, Chicago, United States Center for Community Research, DePaul University, Chicago, United States Madison Sunnquist Madison Sunnquist Center for Community Research, DePaul University, Chicago, United States Center for Community Research, DePaul University, Chicago, United States Kelly O’Connor Kelly O’Connor Center for Community Research, DePaul University, Chicago, United States Center for Community Research, DePaul University, Chicago, United States